Christian literature began with the ‘Apostolic FathersApostolic FathersThe Apostolic Fathers were Christian theologians who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have personally known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been significantly influenced by them. Their writings, though popular in Early Christianity, were not included in the canon of the New Testament. Many of the writings derive from the same time period and geographical location as othe…en.wikipedia.org,’ whose writings reflect the way of life of the early Christians. The‘Apologists’wrote in defense of the faith and the third century saw the beginnings of theological writing in the strict sense. 1. The New Testament
What are the early Christian writings?
The first eight or nine documents are also known as the Apostolic Fathers. The writers known as the church fathers represent the ancient orthodox church as opposed to other elements of ancient Christianity such as Gnosticism. These are the church fathers and apologists that can be read on the Early Christian Writings web site.
Who defended Christianity in the 2nd century?
In the 2nd century, several Christian writers—Aristides, Justin Martyr, Tatian, Theophilus, Athenagoras, Tertullian—defended Christianity against the popular and political charges brought against it by non-Christians.
Why should I read Confessions of Augustine?
Confessionsis considered the first Christian biographical work and influenced many writers for years to come. Why you should read it: Augustine is considered one of the—if not the single most—influential theologians of the Church. His works inspired Christian writers, thinkers and theologians for centuries afterwards.
Was orig orig Origen written for convinced Christians?
Origen insisted that his work was not written for convinced Christians but “either for those entirely without experience of faith in Christ, or for those whom the apostle calls ‘weak in faith’.”
What was the content of the Apologists writings dictated by?
The content of their writings was dictated by the kind of accusations being levelled against Christians at any particular time. To deal with accusations that Christians were guilty of all sorts of crimes, the Apologists replied by giving an enactment of the real way of life of Christ’s disciples.
What was the Christian teaching?
The Apologists ‘ reply was that Christian teaching was a knowledge infinitely superior to Greek philosophy, for it held the complete truth. Around the year 200, some writers who had provided an intellectual defence of Christianity began to produce non-polemical literature, of a kind demanded by the growing maturity of the Church: expositions of the whole body of Christian teaching, to be used to educate the very many converts who began to come from more educated sectors of society. This was how the science of theology began.
What are the most important texts in the first group of Christian writings?
The most outstanding texts in this first group of Christian writings are the Didache (the oldest known account of church discipline), the letter of St Clement to the Corinthians, which we have already mentioned; the seven letters of St Ignatius of Antioch to other churches, written on his journey to Rome, where he would suffer martyrdom; and another letter, by St Polycarp of Smyrna. The Shepherd of Hennas, which has importance for tracing the history of penitential practice, also belongs to this group.
What is the letter to Diognetus?
The Letter to Diognetus (which may have been the apologia presented by Quadrants to Emperor Hadrian) presents this witness to the Christian way of life as the best proof of the falsity of anti-Christian calumnies.
How many books are in the New Testament?
The New Testament consists of twenty-seven books, all of them written in the second half of the first century. Four gospels cover the life and teachings of our Lord Jesus Christ; the Acts of the Apostles — written by St Luke — are also an historical record, dealing with the life of the early church of Jerusalem and going on to describe the activities of St Paul the Apostle up to his arrival at Rome to appear before the judgment seat of Caesar.
What are the accounts of martyrdom written by Christian eyewitnesses?
5. Christian Apologetics.
What was the main objective of the Apologists?
The main objective of the ‘Apologists’ was to indicate Christian truth, and their writings were directed at readers outside the Church. Some of these apologetic works, addressed to Jews, refuted Jewish criticism of Christianity, arguing from the Old Testament to show that Jesus was the messiah foretold by the prophets, that the Church was the new Israel and that Christianity was the fullness of the law. A notable example of this type is the Dialogue with Trypho, written by St Justin Martyr around the year 150. But generally these writings were addressed to the typical pagan hostile to Christianity.
What is the first Christian biographical work?
Confessions is considered the first Christian biographical work and influenced many writers for years to come. Why you should read it: Augustine is considered one of the—if not the single most—influential theologians of the Church. His works inspired Christian writers, thinkers and theologians for centuries afterwards.
What is the book of Augustine?
2. Confessions, by Augustine of Hippo. Confessions is the autobiography of Augustine. He retells of his Christian upbringing by his mother, his sinful and wayward youth and his conversion from the Manichaen cult to Christianity. Augustine also provides many spiritual insights and meditations into his story.
What is the Didache?
The Didache presents a view of the early church practices that we rarely get to see, and is a very summarized version of the beliefs and rituals that composed the Church. If you want to familiarize yourself with what exact ways the early Christians did church, this a great place to start—right after the book of Acts.
Why is the Didache considered canon?
Beyond that, it was almost considered canon to scripture by a few prominent early Christians because it was a way to convey Christ’s teachings to the common person. Reading it may give you a good allegorical perspective on early Christian theology. 4. The Didache.
What are the four books that have stood the test of time?
1. On the Incarnation, by Athanasius of Alexandria.
Who was the deacon in Alexandria?
Athanasius was a deacon in Alexandria during the Arian controversy in the fourth century. Arians denied the divinity of Jesus Christ, and Athanasius vehemently defended the doctrine of the Trinity from the growing Arian sect. He wrote On the Incarnation in defense of the full divinity and full humanity of Christ. This was subsequently what put him under fire when Athanasius stood against great persecution from the Arians throughout his life. He was exiled five times by four different Roman emperors for this position, but remained faithful to what he had written and taught.
Who was the deacon in the Incarnation?
On the Incarnation, by Athanasius of Alexandria. Athanasius was a deacon in Alexandria during the Arian controversy in the fourth century. Arians denied the divinity of Jesus Christ, and Athanasius vehemently defended the doctrine of the Trinity from the growing Arian sect.
What is Schleiermacher’s Christian faith?
Schleiermacher continued this apologetic theme in his comprehensive account of Christian doctrine, The Christian Faith (1821–22; 1831). In his wake, Protestant systematic theology in the 19th and 20th centuries generally sought to operate within the “plausibility structures” of “modernity.”.
Why are the institutions of the Earthly City not without their divine rationale?
The institutions of the earthly city are not without their divine rationale, for they ensure a relative justice amid the fallen condition of humankind. Yet the happiness the earthly city allows is only temporary, and its society is conflicted. Only the peace and eternity of the divine city match the Supreme Good.
What did Augustine show in his criticism of the Christian emperors?
Augustine showed the inconsistency of the critics in failing to blame the civic gods for previous setbacks and in failing to give credit for the divine benefits bestowed on Christian emperors. He asserted that the true God is the ruler of all nations, bestowing both success and calamity for his own purposes.
Why did Augustine start the City of God?
At the beginning of the 5th century, Augustine began his work City of God as an answer to pagan complaints that the sack of Rome—supposedly “the eternal city”—by Alaric and his Goths in 410 was due to the abandonment of the old gods in favour of Christianity.
What does the letter of Peter say about apologetics?
Apologetics: defending the faith . The First Letter of Peter tells its addressees that they must “always be prepared to make a defense ( apologia) to anyone who calls you to account for the hope that is in you ” (3:15). The defense of the faith has been required of Christians when they faced persecution, but “apologetics” have also been undertaken in …
When did doubt take over from faith?
When, partly as a result of the European “Wars of Religion” in the 16th and 17th centuries, doubt took over from faith as a methodological principle in philosophy and the natural sciences, some tried a new apologetic tack.
Who wrote the book against Celsus?
These early apologetics came to a climax in the eight books of Against Celsus, a treatise written by Origen around 246–248 to answer the still troublesome work of a Platonist and critic of Christianity dating from about 70 years earlier and claiming to speak “the word of truth” ( alêthês logos ). Celsus was quite well informed about …
What is Stoicism in Early Christianity?
Stoicism in Early Christianity is a collection of thirteen scholarly essays dedicated to exploring the relationship between Greco-Roman philosophy and the development of Christianity in the first and second century. The editors acknowledge in their introduction that the influence of Middle Platonism upon early Greek and Latin church fathers and …
What is Stoic Ethics in the Gospel of Matthew?
Stowers limits his discussion to a few of the most distinctive elements of the Matthean Jesus – the idea of a universal ethic based on divine law, the demand for perfection, and the concept of intentionality.
What is the setting of Stoicism and Platonism in the Transitional Period in Ancient Philosophy?
The opening essay by Troels Engberg-Pederson, “Setting the Scene: Stoicism and Platonism in the Transitional Period in Ancient Philosophy,” provides historical and philosophical context for the essays collected in this volume. In the period from about 100 B.C.E. to 200 C.E., the Greco-Roman world experienced a gradual ideological shift from the predominance of Stoicism to the predominance of Platonism. The more fluid negotiation of philosophical ideas typical of this period was a trend that included Jewish and early Christian writers who, like other thinkers, followed the pattern of maintaining allegiance to their founding ideologies while also incorporating alien material.
How did the Valentinians use Stoicism?
In “Stoic Traditions in the School of Valentinus”, Ismo Dunderberg makes the case for the Valentinian’s use of Stoic philosophy by showing how a Stoic reading helps to bring forward certain points with greater clarity than readings from the perspective of other philosophical positions. It is reasonable to assume that Valentinian teachers would have had a philosophical education; it’s also plausible that they would have absorbed Stoic ideas from the popular philosophy of their time. The mythic discourse preferred by the Valentinians remains a problematic area, but it does indicate that the use of Stoicism, along with other sources, was part of a creative palette of innovation, and not a straight-forward adaptation.
What did Stoics believe about slavery?
While both Christians and adherents of Stoicism accepted slavery and most of their views were commonplace for the time, Christian and Stoic writers called for fair treatment of slaves and believed the condition of slavery was indifferent to the individual’s well-being. John T. Fitzgerald’s “The Stoics and the Early Christians on the Treatment of Slaves” offers a broad survey of the literature on this topic. Corporeal punishment and other forms of abuse inspired by passion or wrong feeling were discouraged by Stoics like Seneca and Lucilius, though more for the sake of the master’s improvement than concern for the slave. Christian writers, on the other hand, tended more often to approach discussions of slavery and right conduct from the perspective of the slave.
What is the Stoic Law in Paul?
. The notion that a person’s social position should be maintained is part of a value system common in Roman Stoicism; in the passage from Corinthians, Paul appears to consider that the same conceptcan be drawn from the Torah, but that relationship remains unclear. Huttunen’s analysis of the passage from Romans shows that Paul’s incorporation of Stoic ideas coexists with Jewish covenantal nomism, and the two approaches should be considered together.
Does the Savior liberate the world?
The Savior does not liberate the world by destroying matter, but by restoring Nature to the Good by destroying that which acts against Nature. When compared to other early Christian sources (Philo and Clement of Alexandria) Gospel of Mary more clearly belongs to a context in which Stoic ideas were used to explain evil.