are most christians in the middle east eastern orthadox

are most christians in the middle east eastern orthadox插图

Todaymost Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia, the Balkans, and the Middle East. In Greek the word orthodoxy (orth and doxa) means correct praise or correct teaching.

Why are Middle Eastern Orthodox churches facing threats?

Orthodox churches in the Middle East are facing their gravest existential threat since the Arab Conquest. The church communities in Christianity’s historic cradle are faced with shrinking flocks due to the lure of immigration, threats of sectarian violence, and increasing societal marginalization.

What countries do Christians live in in the Middle East?

Christians of the Middle East: Country-By-Country Facts 1 Lebanon. 2 Syria. 3 Occupied Palestine/Gaza the West Bank. 4 Israel. 5 Egypt. 6 Iraq. 7 Jordan.

How old is the Christian presence in the Middle East?

He has been writing for more than 20 years. The Christian presence in the Middle East dates back, of course, to Jesus Christ during the Roman Empire. That 2,000-year presence has gone uninterrupted since, especially in the countries of the Levant: Lebanon, Palestine/Israel, Syria—and Egypt.

Are there any Christians in Iraq today?

Small numbers of Armenian Orthodox, Melkites, Maronites and Syrian Catholics. Christians have been in Iraq since the 2nd century—mostly Chaldeans, whose Catholicism remains deeply influenced by ancient, eastern rites, and Assyrians, who are not Catholic. The war in Iraq since 2003 has ravaged all communities, Christians included.

Why was Shenouda III banished to a desert monastery?

As late as 1981, Coptic Patriarch Shenouda III was banished to a desert monastery by former Egyptian President Anwar Sadat due to Coptic activist work abroad and his refusal

What is public Orthodoxy?

Public Orthodoxy seeks to promote conversation by providing a forum for diverse perspectives on contemporary issues related to Orthodox Christianity. The positions expressed in this essay are solely the author’s and do not necessarily represent the views of the editors or the Orthodox Christian Studies Center.

Should Orthodox clerics follow dictatorships blindly?

But does the Iraq catastrophe mean that Orthodox clerics should simply perpetually follow military dictatorships blindly? The simple answer is no.

What is the irony of the Iraq war?

Nevertheless, the irony, for Iraq’s Christians, is that on balance they were far better off under Saddam Hussein than since his downfall.

How many Christians are there in Israel?

The Israeli government claims 144,000 Israelis are Christians, including 117,000 Palestinian Arabs and several thousand Ethiopian and Russian Christians who migrated to Israel, with Ethiopian and Russian Jews, during the 1990s. The World Christian Database puts the figure at 194,000.

How long has the Middle East been Christian?

He has been writing for more than 20 years. The Christian presence in the Middle East dates back, of course, to Jesus Christ during the Roman Empire. That 2,000-year presence has gone uninterrupted since, especially in the countries of the Levant: Lebanon, Palestine/Israel, Syria—and Egypt.

When was the last census in Lebanon?

Lebanon last conducted an official census in 1932 , during the French Mandate. So all figures, including total population, are estimates based on various media, government and non-government organizations’ numbers.

When did the Middle Ages convert to Islam?

Much of the region either forcibly or voluntarily converted to Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries. In the Middle Ages, the European Crusades attempted, brutally, repeatedly but ultimately unsuccessfully, to restore Christian hegemony over the region.

Is Jordan tolerant to Christians?

Jordan. As elsewhere in the Middle East, the number of Jordan’s Christians has been declining. Jordan’s attitude toward Christians had been relatively tolerant. That changed in 2008 with the expulsion of 30 Christian religious workers and an increase in religious persecutions overall.

Did the Eastern and Western Church see eye to eye?

The Eastern and Western Church don’t quite see eye to eye–haven’t for about 1,500 years. Lebanon’s Maronites split off from the Vatican centuries ago, then agreed to return to the fold, preserving to themselves rites, ?dogmas, and customs of their choice (don’t tell a Maronite priest he can’t marry!)

What are the Orthodox churches in the Middle East?

The Oriental Orthodox family in the Middle East includes three other churches: Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite). The largest of the three — indeed, the largest denomination in the Middle East — is the Coptic Orthodox, numbering perhaps 5.5 to 6 million. The Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church includes four jurisdictions in the Middle East: the patriarchates of Jerusalem and Constantinople and the catholicates of Cilicia (based in Beirut) and Etch-miadzin, Armenia. The Syrian Orthodox Church — whose patriarch presides from Damascus, just a few buildings away from the Greek Orthodox patriarchate of Antioch — had its heartland in what is now southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, and northern Syria. In recent years disturbances in Turkey (related both to the Kurdish question and to the Gulf War) have contributed to the emigration of many#N#members of this community to Syria and Lebanon or to Europe and North America. The Syrian Orthodox people, locally called Suryanis, continue to speak their ancient Syriac dialect and use it in their liturgy.

Where is the Eastern Orthodox Church located?

The Eastern Orthodox Church in the Middle East developed around the four patriarchates of the early church: Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople. During the Ottoman period the Eastern Orthodox millet (community) was represented#N#before the sultan by the patriarch of Constantinople, the ecumenical patriarch, who was considered primus inter pares among the patriarchs. Of the other patriarchates, which serve predominantly Arab parishioners, only one — that of Antioch — has an Arab serving as patriarch. The patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem are Greeks who preside over Greek hierarchies. Particularly in the see of Jerusalem, this has created a gulf between Palestinian and Jordanian parishioners and their leadership. Of the four patriarchates the largest, both geographically and numerically (about 760,000), is Antioch. This patriarchate includes Syria, Israel, Iraq, Iran, and Kuwait, with a few parishes in southern Turkey. The smallest is Constantinople — the Greek Orthodox population in Turkey has dwindled to about 3,000. The ecumenical patriarchate, however, continues to exercise leadership for the Greek Orthodox diaspora outside the Middle East.

Where did Christianity originate?

Although the earliest Christians were all Jews, some time around 45 c.e. some of the Apostles — especially Paul and Barnabas — began to preach to the Gentiles throughout the Near East. Antioch, Edessa, and Alexandria emerged as early centers of Christianity. By the fourth century the spread and influence of Christianity were such that it had become the official religion of the Roman Empire, whose capital had been moved by the emperor Constantine from Rome to Constantinople. At that time, too, the religion underwent a series of theological disputes centered primarily on the relationship of the divine and human nature of Christ. At the Council of Chalcedon (451), those that stressed the unitary nature of Christ (the Monophysites) were deemed heretical. (They constituted the Oriental Orthodox family of churches.) The Eastern Orthodox (Greek) Church, centered at Constantinople, remained the official imperial church of the Byzantine Empire. With the expansion of the Latin-based, Western-rite church centered at Rome and looking west to Europe, the theologies, languages, and rituals of the two centers of Christianity — Constantinople and Rome — developed in their distinctive fashions, leading ultimately to the formal split of 1054. Throughout the formative period of Christianity, the Middle Eastern churches — Coptic, Armenian, Chaldean (centered in Iraq ), Assyrian, and Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite) — drew their followers from the indigenous population, most of whom eventually converted to Islam after the invasions of the seventh century. The Western, Roman Catholic Church became interested in the region once again after the period of the Crusades (eleventh to fourteenth centuries). The churches of the Protestant Reformation (sixteenth century) were not yet in existence.