What is the religion of Māori?
Māori Christianity. Until the mid-20th century, few Māori were secular. Traditionally Māori recognised a pantheon of gods and spiritual influences. From the late 1820s Māori transformed their moral practices, religious lives and political thinking, as they made Christianity their own.
When did Māori become secular?
Until the mid-20th century, few Māori were secular. Traditionally Māori recognised a pantheon of gods and spiritual influences. From the late 1820s Māori transformed their moral practices, religious lives and political thinking, as they made Christianity their own.
Why did Māori drift away from Christianity?
Despite their initial commitment, Māori drifted from Christianity because of missionaries’ roles in injurious land deals, church negligence caused by settler capture of clergy, and sectarian jealousies.
What is the largest Māori church in New Zealand?
In 2013 the Rātana Church was the largest Māori denomination in New Zealand and had a membership of 38,268, around 6% of the Māori population. Some Pentecostal churches, such as the Apostolic Church, made an effort to develop Māori leaders in the mid-20th century.
What did Tohunga do?
Tohunga, often high-born, carefully selected and highly-educated, acted as mediums of the gods, interpreting signs, addressing the gods on the people’s behalf, and leading incantations, rituals, offerings and sacrifices; they were consulted on military strategies, horticulture, fishing expeditions, and health.
When did the Anglican missionaries arrive in Northland?
Anglican lay missionaries arrived in Northland in 1814, followed by Wesleyans in 1822, and Catholics in 1838. Māori were fascinated by the all-powerful God, and the Bible, full of wonderful stories, was key to the desirable new arts of reading and writing. Northern Māori quickly evangelised their southern relatives and friends.
Who were the Wesleyans who visited Marlborough in 1839?
Northern Māori quickly evangelised their southern relatives and friends. The Wesleyans, Bumby and Hobbs, visited Marlborough in June 1839 and discovered ‘… true light has shone teaching the people to observe the Sabbath and worship God which they do … to the best of their ability twice a day’.
When did Ironside’s Marlborough congregation collapse?
Ironside’s Marlborough congregation collapsed from 1,500 to six members when Ngāti Toa and Te ātiawa returned to the North Island after the Wairau Affray in June 1843. In Nelson, ministers served both European and Māori flocks.
Who re-evangelized Te Tau Ihu?
In the late 19 th century many Te Tau Ihu Māori were re-evangelised by Mormon missionaries, or joined syncretic religions which fused Biblical ideas and traditional beliefs. A Ngāti Koata/Ngāti Kuia man from Pelorus, Haimona Patete , founded the Seven Rules of Jehovah church, which flourished in Marlborough and Wairarapa for about 25 years from the 1890s.
Who was the missionary who visited Marlborough and Nelson?
Octavius Hadfield, Church Missionary Society, who visited Marlborough and Nelson from Waikanae from 1839, teaching and baptising, reported a congregation of 900 at Okukari (outer Tory Channel) in July 1841. Samuel Ironside, Wesleyan, established himself at Ngakuta, Port Underwood, in December 1840.
What was Te Kooti’s religion?
Te Kooti converted his fellow prisoners to his new religion, named Ringatū (raised hand) after the ritual used as a tribute to God. Te Kooti was pursued by government soldiers through the Urewera from 1869 to 1872. Ringatū became strong in Bay of Plenty.
What was the name of the movement that grew out of disillusionment with missionaries, settlers and government?
Pai Mārire and Kīngitanga. Independent Māori Christian movements such as Pai Mārire (goodness and peace) flourished during the wars of the 1860s, as disillusionment grew with missionaries, settlers and government.
What was the role of Christianity in the Waikato War?
During the Waikato war, Ngāti Hauā chief Wiremu Tāmihana fought to defend God, (Māori) King and country against what he (and many others) saw as British aggression.
Which church attracted the largest following in the 1840s?
By the mid-1840s, probably a larger proportion of Māori than Britons in the United Kingdom regularly attended services. Te Hāhi Mihinare , the Anglican Church, attracted the largest following (and remains the largest Māori denomination), followed by Methodists and Catholics.
Why did the police arrest Rua?
In 1916 armed police marched into the village to arrest Rua for selling liquor without a licence. In the gunfight that erupted, two Māori, including one of Rua’s sons, were killed.
Who was the mouthpiece of Jehovah?
Te Whiti-o-Rongomai. Te Whiti-o-Rongomai was a Taranaki prophet and leader who called himself the ‘mouthpiece of Jehovah’ and a ‘small Christ’. A resistance movement developed around his settlement at Parihaka, with ploughmen disrupting government attempts to survey and occupy confiscated land on the Waimate plains.
What are the three cultural streams of the Anglican Church?
Since 1992 the Anglican Church has had three cultural streams – for Pākehā, Māori and Pacific peoples – and all priests received training in the Māori language.
What was the first missionary to come to New Zealand?
The Anglican Church was the first to send missionaries to New Zealand in 1814. Its Māori name, Te Hahi Mihinare, means ‘the missionary church’. Anglican missionaries used Māori converts to spread their message. The first Māori priest, Rota Waitoa, was ordained in 1860.
Where did the Salvation Army come from?
Salvation Army. When the Salvation Army first came to New Zealand, they focused on urban areas, where few Māori lived. In 1888 a mission to Māori began on the Whanganui River, and in the mid-20th century the Army ran a mission on the East Coast. Since 2000 the Salvation Army has increased its work among Māori.
When was the Marae opened?
In 1947 a marae was opened in the Bay of Plenty as a base for Māori in the church. Te Wānanga a Rangi, which provides Māori-focused theological training, was established in 1953.
When did the first Catholic missionaries arrive in New Zealand?
The first Catholic missionaries arrived in New Zealand in 1838 and worked with Māori in Northland and then Waikato. For many years after the New Zealand wars there was little missionary work among Māori, but many Māori Catholic communities stayed loyal to the church. In the 1940s Wiremu Te āwhitu became the first Māori Catholic priest, …
When did the Methodist Church come to New Zealand?
Methodist Church. Methodist missionaries arrived in New Zealand in 1822. Māori ministers were paid less than their Pākeha colleagues, but were very important in the church’s growth. In the 1970s Rua Rakena published a book calling for a change in how Māori were treated in the church, and the Methodist Church became more bicultural.
Who was the first Presbyterian minister in New Zealand?
The first Māori Presbyterian minister, Timu Teoke, was ordained in 1931. In 1945 there was a call for more Māori leaders within the church. In 1947 a marae was opened in the Bay of Plenty as a base for Māori in …
What are some examples of Maori cultural dances?
Maori Cultural Dances. Two other important and closely related artforms in Maori society are song and dance. A common example is haka. Haka is a class of dances involving lively movements with the body accompanied by chanting and energetic vocalizations.
What is the Maori war dance?
The Maori war dance traditionally consisted of the warriors intentionally making ugly faces and sounds while dancing to frighten and demoralize the enemy. Te Wairoa: The Buried Village of New Zealand.
What religion did Maori adopt?
During the colonial period, many Maori adopted Christianity. In the mid-19th century, numerous Maori Christians used their faith as a justification for resisting the British government, as the British encroached on their ancestral lands. Most Maori Christians are part of the Anglican tradition today. There are also many Maori Methodists and Catholics.
What are the Maori people?
Since the Maori are descended from Polynesian voyagers who settled the islands in the 13th or 14th century, the Maori have many social, metaphysical, and religious concepts in common with other Polynesian groups . These concepts include mana and tapu.
What tribes did the Haast’s eagle attack?
The most high-status individuals in ancient Maori society were the chiefs, followed by commoners and slaves.
What is the Maori name for New Zealand?
Since New Zealand, or as the Maori call it, Aotearoa, represented the southwestern edge of the known world to the Polynesians of the 13th and 14th centuries, the Maori could be considered a people living at the world’s edge. Model of a typical Pā (hillfort) built by Māori on headlands (for defense). ( Public Domain )
How many Maori people are there today?
There are over 500,000 Maori people living today.
About the Author
Joe Koizim graduated from Georgetown University in 2010 with a major in mathematics and minor in economics. He participated in the Berkley Center’s Junior Year Abroad Network while studying in New Zealand during the spring semester of 2009.
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What is a pwhiri?
4. A pōwhiri is a Māori welcoming ceremony that includes speeches, dancing, singing and the hongi. It is used to welcome guests onto a marae or for other ceremonies of encounter such as the dedication of a building or welcoming new families at a school, or new colleagues at a workplace. When a pōwhiri is done, guests should stand at the waharoa (gateway or main entranceway), while the host or tangata whenua (local people of the land) stand at the wharenui (meeting house).
What is the last process of a pwhiri?
8. The last process of a pōwhiri is taking the visitor to the wharekai (dining room). Manuhiri (visitors) will be called in for food. It is polite to let kaumātua (elders) go first and wait until a karakia (grace) has been said before eating.
What is the custom of greeting people with hongi?
The head is bent, eyes are lowered or closed, and noses are pressed together before stepping back. The hongi is a traditional Māori greeting. 10. Pounamu is considered a taonga (treasure).
What is a ta moko?
2. Ta moko are traditional Māori tattoo, often on the face. The purpose and application of moko are sacred and valued as a taonga (treasure). Facial tattoos above the eyes denote spiritual wisdom while below the eyes allude to physical achievements.
What is a karakia?
Karakia are traditional Māori incantations and prayers, used to invoke spiritual guidance and protection such as the blessing of a house, for safe travels, before the preparation of food. A karakia is also considered as a formal greeting when beginning a ceremony. 4.
What does the speaker do in the wharenui?
7. A speaker stands inside the wharenui (meeting house) and gives an oration. This speaker is often commenced by a man. Also remember that there is no food or drink to be taken into or consumed in the wharenui.
What does it mean to remove your shoes and hats before entering the sacred wharenui?
Removing your shoes and hats before entering the sacred wharenui is a sign of respect and connects allows you to connect with your ancestors, with your bare feet and open mind. 2.
Why did Titokowaru bring back the Maori tactics?
He brought back the old Maori tactics of war to strike fear in the hearts of the British. His men would cut out the heart of the first man they killed and cannibalize the others.
What did the Maori do on the Tasman?
On their first meeting, the Maori canoed out toward Tasman’s boats, blowing shell war trumpets and trying to scare the Europeans away.
Why did Volkner stick around?
They started to suspect that the reason Volkner was sticking around was because he was a spy, and so they got rid of him —in one of the most brutal ways in history. One of Huamene’s disciples, Kereopa Te Rau, had Volkner taken prisoner and executed.
How many Maori died in 1800?
By the end, a massive chunk of the Maori population was dead. There were only about 100,000 Maori in 1800.
What were the Maori before colonialism?
Few made them fight as hard, though, as the Maori of New Zealand. The Maori, before colonialism, were brutal warriors. They were cannibals. They were head hunters and slavers.
How many people died in the Te Kooti massacre?
Then they ran through the town, slaughtering every person they could find. Before the massacre was through, 51 people had died. Te Kooti, it was clear, was no longer a loyalist. When the massacre was over, he waged one of the biggest wars New Zealand would see.
Where was Te Kooti locked up?
Locked in a jail cell on the Chatham Islands, Te Kooti had a change of heart. He spent three years in prison before he broke out. He freed 298 other Maori prisoners, seized a ship, and sailed off, landing in Poverty Bay.
What did Minson do to Jesus?
Minson took this ubiquitous image as her starting point but made significant modifications in giving Jesus the physiognomy of a Māori: dark skin, dark hair, a flat nose, and full lips. She also makes him more masculine, with a bigger build and harder features.
Why do people wear moko on their faces?
To wear the moko on the face is a bold move that bespeaks your pride of self and heritage, because think about it: wherever you go, your face is the one part of your body that is likely to always be on view.
What is the Galilee Chapel?
Its Galilee Chapel is designed to look like the interior of a chief’s house. The room features an etched glass window depicting Jesus dressed in a korowai (tasseled cloak) with a tāniko border, bearing a regalness much becoming a Māori chief.
Why is Jesus identified as Jesus?
The figure is identifiable as Jesus because of the bloody wound on his wrist and the three nails that are pinned to different extremities of an abstracted cross. He is shown as Māori, with feathers in his hair and moko on his face, upper arm, buttocks, and thigh.
What does the inscription under Jesus’ foot mean?
The inscription under Jesus’s foot reads, HAERE I RUNGA I TE RANGIMARIE O HEHU KARAITI: “Go in the peace of Jesus Christ,” or “The peace of Jesus Christ be with you.” An odd choice, given the decidedly nonpeaceful appearance of Christ’s face! However, Christians know that Christ’s suffering, and his trampling of death and sin, were necessary to grant us the peace we enjoy in him today. This popular Christian benediction is well placed above the church’s exit door, reminding parishioners that as they go out and encounter all manner of assault against their spirits throughout the week, they have, through Christ, eternal security and rest.
What does it mean to look away from God?
Jesus Christ is the window through which we can see God. When the Christian message says with emphasis, “Look to Christ,” it does not mean “look away from God,” but “look away to God where God really is,” for if God is contemplated apart from Christ, if Christ is ignored, then God is not seen as He really is.
Where is Christ crowned with thorns?
Christ Crowned with Thorns. Another New Zealand church that houses a Māori representation of Jesus—three, in fact, counting the previously discussed Tangiwai by Julia Lynch—is St. Joseph’s Church in the village of Jerusalem (or Hiruharama, as the Māori call it).
What was the subject of bitterness in the Ratana movement?
A subject of particular bitterness was the failure of the government to fulfill its several promises to the Maoris in the Treaty of Waitangi (1840; see Waitangi, Treaty of ). The association of Ratana’s movement with other Christian denominations ended in 1925.
What was the Treaty of Waitangi?
Treaty of Waitangi, (Feb. 6, 1840), historic pact between Great Britain and a number of New Zealand Maori tribes of North Island. It purported to protect Maori rights and was the immediate basis of the British annexation of New Zealand. Negotiated at the settlement of Waitangi on February 5–6 by…
Where is Ratana Church?
Ratana church near Raetihi, North Island, New Zealand. The Ratana church was founded by Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana, a Methodist Maori farmer who acquired a reputation as a visionary and faith healer.
When did the Ratana Church start sponsoring political candidates?
Subscribe Now. Combining political activism with its religious beliefs, the Ratana church began to sponsor political candidates in 1922.
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Where did the Maoris come from?
News of his extraordinary gifts drew Maoris (and some whites) from all parts of New Zealand, who came to hear him preach his doctrine of moral reform under the one God of the Bible. In 1920 he established an interdenominational church at the village of Ratana Pa.
When did the New Zealand church renew relationships with other Christian churches?
In the 1960s the church renewed relationships with other Christian churches in New Zealand and reemphasized the original biblical principles of Rātana. The church also gathered many white adherents.