a leading bishop of eastern christianity

a leading bishop of eastern christianity插图

A leading bishop of eastern Christianity is called aPatriarchThe groups inhabiting the forests north of the Black Sea are called The Slavs The ruler of Kiev who made all his subjects convert to Byzantine Christianity was Vladimir The Novgorod prince who advised cooperation with the Mongols is Alexander Nevsky

What is a bishop in the Orthodox Church called?

In Orthodoxy, the bishop is the leading church officer, and all bishops have exactly the same sacramental position in guiding the people of God. A bishop of a large and important area of leadership (usually called a diocese) may be called archbishop or metropolitan, the latter meaning simply the bishop of a chief city, a metropolis.

What is the difference between an archbishop and a patriarch?

A bishop of a large and important area of leadership (usually called a diocese) may be called archbishop or metropolitan, the latter meaning simply the bishop of a chief city, a metropolis. The patriarch is the bishop of the most important city and diocese in a local church and is normally the leading bishop of a country (patria means country).

What is the role of the Bishop?

What does all of this mean? In Orthodoxy, the bishop is the leading church officer, and all bishops have exactly the same sacramental position in guiding the people of God.

Who is the nominal head of the Eastern Orthodox Church?

The nominal head of the Eastern Orthodox Churches is the Patriarch of Constantinople. However, he is only first among equals and has no real authority over Churches other than his own. Is the pope the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church?

What was the second church division in the Christian East?

The second notable church division in the Christian East followed the Council of Chalcedon in 451. In order to heal the growing division over Christology within the Roman-Byzantine Empire, a council of bishops met at Chalcedon, near Constantinople, in 451. This council was a response to an earlier meeting of bishops held in Ephesus in 449. Dubbed the "Robbers Synod" by Pope Leo of Rome, that council supported the extreme Alexandrian Christology expressed by the monk Eutyches. He maintained that in Christ there was a single nature, implying that Christ’s humanity had been lost through its contact with his divinity. The bishops at Chalcedon forcefully repudiated the decisions of the council of 449 and its extreme Alexandrian Christology. They sought to express the apostolic faith in opposition both to extreme Alexandrian and extreme Antiochian perspectives. The council was also concerned with reconciling the growing division between the churches reflecting Alexandrian Christology and those reflecting the Antiochian version, especially the church in Mesopotamia.

What were the Councils of Bishops meeting in Constantinople in 553 and 661?

Councils of bishops meeting in Constantinople in 553 and 661 attempted to heal the growing division. They also addressed ongoing questions related to describing the person of Christ. These councils were eventually recognized as the Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical Councils by the churches of the Byzantine-Roman world. By the seventh century, however, differences in Christology and theological perspectives were greatly complicated by cultural, political, and linguistic factors. In addition, the rise of Islam in the seventh century created a further wedge between those churches that accepted Chalcedon and the subsequent councils and those that did not. While there was some contact and dialogue during the Middle Ages, misunderstandings and language and cultural differences prevented an enduring reconciliation.

What was the council of bishops in Ephesus?

To resolve this dispute, a council of bishops convened in Ephesus in 431. When it began, however, not all the bishops from the region of Antioch had arrived. The council deposed Nestorius and affirmed Cyril’s Christological perspectives. The Antiochian bishops subsequently refused to accept the decision of Ephesus and convened their own council. They held that the terminology of Cyril could be used to deny the integrity of the divinity and humanity in Christ. For some of them, the term "nature" ( physis ) was used to speak about the two realities of humanity and divinity.

Why is Orthodox worship important?

Eastern Christianity has always emphasized the importance of worship. The gathering of believers, especially for the Eucharist, is an act of thanksgiving and praise offered in response to the presence and actions of the Triune God. Although Orthodox worship often can be very elaborate, solemn, and lengthy, it expresses a deep and pervasive sense of joy. This mood is an expression of belief in the Resurrection of Christ and the deification of humanity, dominant themes of Orthodox worship. In order to enhance this feeling and to encourage full participation, services are normally sung or chanted within a setting conducive to prayer.

What was the division of the Christian East after Chalcedon?

The division in the Christian East after Chalcedon not only reflected differences in Christology. It also reflected historical, political, and cultural differences between those Christians within the Roman-Byzantine world and those living on and beyond its boundaries. Following Chalcedon, those who rejected the council’s teaching made up a significant portion of the Christians living on the periphery of the empire. The attempt by the Byzantines to impose the decision of Chalcedon through military force especially in Egypt only compounded the division.

What did the early church believe?

The early church professed that Jesus Christ was not only divine but also human. Reflecting the witness of the New Testament and early Christian teachings, the Council of Nicaea in 325 and the Council of Constantinople in 381 opposed Arianism and Apollinarianism, teachings that denied either Christ’s full divinity or full humanity. Essential aspects of the faith of the church were expressed in the Nicene-Constantinople Creed of 381. By this time, and after much discussion, the church had settled on terminology that described the Trinity as three persons ( hypostases ), one divine essence ( ousia ). However, further questions arose over the relationship of the divinity and the humanity of Christ as well as the theological terms to be employed. These issues led to serious and unresolved divisions primarily within Eastern Christianity following the Council of Ephesus in 431 and the Council of Chalcedon in 451. At their heart, these divisions of the fifth century reflect the differences between the theological schools of Alexandria and Antioch. Both acknowledged Christ to be divine and human. Yet both differed in their descriptions of the relationship of the divinity and humanity in Christ as well as the terms to be used in describing the relationship between them.

What is the statement of the Council of Ephesus?

The statement of the council reflected the theological debates reaching back to the council of Ephesus and the differing emphasis in Christology. The statement brought together the moderate elements of both Alexandrian and Antiochian Christology while opposing the extreme distortions of each. At the same time, the statement established a common terminology that could be received by both traditions. While recognizing the mystery of the incarnation, the statement affirmed that Christ is one person with two natures, both fully human and fully divine. Neither his divine nor his human nature is diminished or lost by the union in one person. Before this, the term "nature" had been used by some to describe the single reality of Christ (one nature). Others had spoken of two natures when referring to the divinity and humanity of Christ.


In the Eastern Catholic Churches the bread and wine used in the sacrament of Communion are the most sacred things. Icons painted on wood or canvas are objects of special veneration, as are crosses, church buildings, the liturgical clothing of the clergy, and ecclesiastical texts.

What are the traditional family values of Eastern Catholics?

Traditional family values form the basis of the social doctrine of the Eastern Catholic Churches. Preparation and special education before marriage have become an obligatory practice for the majority of the churches. Marriage between Eastern Catholics and non-Catholics is not widespread or supported in church communities.

What are the Eastern Catholic Churches’ positions on poverty?

The position of specific Eastern Catholic Churches on poverty and other social problems is generally determined by that church’s position in society . Adherents of the Maronite and Armenian Churches in Lebanon represent the wealthier sector of society and have founded prestigious educational institutions (including universities) and many supportive organizations for the poor. Followers of the Chaldean (in Iraq and Iran), Coptic (in Egypt), and Syrian (in Syria and Turkey) Churches belong to the poorer classes. Eastern European Catholics, who represent the middle class, have used the help of Western Catholic institutions to organize support of the poor within their societies. All the churches try to provide theological and general education for their followers, with support from Rome and other Catholic organizations throughout the world.

How did Eastern Catholicism impact the world?

The Eastern Catholic Churches have had a powerful impact on the cultural development of nations and societies, especially those where Eastern Catholics have been or are the majority or an essential part of the local society, such as Iraq, India, the western Ukraine, and Romanian Transylvania. In the visual and decorative arts, Eastern Catholicism has contributed iconography and other elements of temple decoration, including many famous local images of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and different saints, as well as clerical clothing and liturgical objects. Eastern Catholic architecture in churches, bell towers, and chapels sometimes includes Latin or Western additions that distinguish them from Orthodox buildings. Eastern Catholicism has included polyphonic singing (an obligatory part of the Eastern Orthodox liturgy) in its liturgy, and it has produced a great variety of liturgical, ecclesiastical, historical, and educational works.

What are the Eastern Catholic churches?

The Eastern Catholic Churches fall into four groups: patriarchates, major archepiscopacies, metropolies, and others. The six patriarchal Eastern Catholic Churches—the Maronite, Armenian, Chaldean, Syrian, Melkite, and Coptic churches—have the highest level of autonomy and consist of numerous (sometimes two or three dozen) dioceses, which in some cases are joined in regional metropolies or exarchates (one step above a metropoly). The Ukrainian Church and the Syro-Malabar Church in India are major archepiscopacies (archbishoprics), which also consist of numerous dioceses and metropolies or exarchates.

Why is Easter important to Eastern Catholics?

As in Eastern Christianity, Easter is the most significant holiday for Eastern Catholics because of its symbolism of victory over the death. The other main Eastern Catholic holidays are a combination of the 12 traditional holidays in Eastern Christianity (including Christmas, Theophany, Holy Trinity, Transfiguration, Dormition of the Most Pure Mother of God, Exaltation of the Holy Cross, Christmas of the God’s Mother, and Entering of the God’s Mother into the Temple), several holidays from Western Christianity (including Holy Eucharist and the Christ’s Heart), and certain holidays celebrating specific events and saints from regional Eastern Catholic traditions—for example, the Day of Saint Josafat Kuntsevych, observed by Eastern European Catholics, and the Day of Mykola Charnetsky, a newly proclaimed saint in the Ukrainian Church.

Do Catholics fast on Wednesdays?

According to the common Orthodox tradition, Eastern Catholic Churches observe no specific dietary limitations or prohibitions. Fasts have a more significant role in the church than they do in Western Christianity, however. When adherents fast, they may not eat any product of animal origin or drink alcohol; they must limit public appearances and sexual activity; they may not organize or conduct celebrations or intensive spiritual exercises; and they more frequently attend worship services and pray. Eastern Catholics fast on Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year and participate in four longer fasts: Lent, the Fast of the Holy Apostles, the Fast of the Dormition of the Most Pure Mother of God, and Advent. Several contemporary churches have eliminated fasting obligations on certain dates ( New Year ‘s Day in the Ukrainian Church, for example); relaxed general fasting requirements (permitting the use of eggs and milk and shortening the length of fasting periods); and exempted several groups of people from fasting, including children, the elderly, pregnant women, travelers, and those who are ill. These churches still support strict rules during Lent (the Great Fast).

What is the role of a bishop in Orthodoxy?

In Orthodoxy, the bishop is the leading church officer, and all bishops have exactly the same sacramental position in guiding the people of God. A bishop of a large and important area of leadership (usually called a diocese) may be called archbishop or metropolitan, the latter meaning simply the bishop of a chief city, a metropolis.

What is the role of the patriarch?

The patriarch is the bishop of the most important city and diocese in a local church and is normally the leading bishop of a country (patria means country).

Is the bishop of Moscow a patriarch?

For example, in Russia the bishop of Moscow is the patriarch; the bishops of Kiev and Leningrad are metropolitans; and there are other archbishops and bishops within the local church.