Since the early 17th century the Armenians have made up the majority ofIran’s Christian population. During the Persian-Ottoman wars (17th century), the Persian king, Shah Abbas I, moved more than 300,000 Armenians from their home in Julfa (now located in Azerbaijan) to the Shah’s capital of IsfahanIsfahanIsfahan, historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is a city in Iran. It is located 406 kilometres south of Tehran, and is the capital of Isfahan Province.en.wikipedia.orgin central Iran.
What are the major religions in Armenia?
Religious Beliefs and Spirituality in Armenia. The predominant religion in Armenia is Christianity. Most of Armenia’s Christians belong to the Armenian Church, although there is a minority of Russian Orthodox. The second religion of Armenia is Islam.
Is Armenia a Christian nation?
Yes, Armenia is the first Christian country. This is accepted by most historians. The people who are having issues with this fact are the same people who spread misinformation about Armenians. By 301 AD, Armenia was the first state ever to accept christianity as a state religion. This has never been done before.
How many Jews are in Armenia?
Today, there is only a small, mostly Russified Jewish community of 800 in Armenia still remaining. Armenians have had a presence in Israel for centuries. The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem was founded in 638.
Are Armenians Jews?
We are all cousins if we go back hundreds of thousands of years to our distant ancestors in Africa. However, Jews are Semitic people most closely related to Lebanese and Palestinians, and almost as closely related to Arabs, whereas Armenians Armenians are ethnically Indo-European. The two lines split a long time ago. 739 views View upvotes
What religion did the Armenians practice?
Religiously, ancient Armenians were polytheists, influenced by both Greek and Persian religions. But this began to change in the early fourth century A.D. According to tradition, a young Armenian prince named Gregory became a refugee from his homeland when his father was executed for attempting to assassinate the king of Persia. The young exile was raised and educated by a Christian and ultimately converted to Christianity. Upon returning to Armenia, Gregory “the Illuminator” (or “Enlightener”) (ca. 257-331) started preaching throughout his homeland. Known as a miracle-worker, Gregory was summoned to heal the ailing Armenian king Tiridates III (r. 287-330). Convinced by his miraculous recovery, Tiridates converted to Christianity around 301, a decade before the conversion of Constantine of Rome. Although the population of Armenia was still largely pagan at this time, Tiridates made Christianity the state religion and Armenia became the first officially Christian nation.
What countries were Armenians divided between?
During World War I, Armenians were divided roughly equally between Russian and Turkey. Muslim Turks feared that Christian Armenians would support the invading Christian Russians, and anti-Armenian paranoia spread like wildfire. As many as 1.5 million Armenians were murdered, with hundreds of thousands becoming refugees in a global diaspora.
How many Armenians were murdered in 1990?
As many as 1.5 million Armenians were murdered, with hundreds of thousands becoming refugees in a global diaspora. In 1990, Armenia, one of the Soviet “Republics,” declared its independence from the collapsing Soviet Union, and is now an independent country.
Which country was the first to become a Christian nation?
Although the population of Armenia was still largely pagan at this time, Tiridates made Christianity the state religion and Armenia became the first officially Christian nation. With the blessing of Tiridates, Gregory continued preaching throughout Armenia .
Which kingdom was the first to convert to Christianity?
Strange as it may seem to Western Christians, Armenia can claim to be the first kingdom to officially convert to Christianity. Archaeologists have discovered evidence of civilization in Armenia dating back to the early Bronze Age, but Armenians first appear in history in the eighth century B.C. as the kingdom of Urartu.
When did Armenian Christianity become independent?
At the Council of Dvin in 506, the Armenian Apostolic Church became independent. Thereafter, Armenian Christianity developed its independent theological tradition, with a unique style of church architecture and large elegant, highly ornamented free-standing stone crosses known as “khachkar” (“cross stone”).
Did Armenia spread Christianity?
Thereafter, Christianity in Armenia spread slowly but steadily. Armenian bishops participated in early church councils, and, in the early fifth century, the Bible was translated into Armenian by St. Mesrob, who created the Armenian script and laid the foundation for a rich medieval Armenian literature.
Why did the Armenians not accept Ezr’s decision?
Many Armenian monks and bishops in the east did not accept the actions of Ezr, and some no longer honored him as catholicos, harshly criticizing his decision. The Armenian Council of Dvin officially renounced Ezr’s agreement with Heraclius in 645 CE, again only recognizing the first three ecumenical councils. The agreement was most likely only agreed upon in the first place because of Armenian fear of Byzantine repercussions or because Ezr was convinced by Heraclius’ compromise agreement, either by conviction or bribe. Once the Arabs had invaded the country, they greatly supported the concept of an Armenian Church, as it created a rift between the Byzantines and Armenians.
What are the differences between the Armenian and Orthodox Churches?
The major disagreements between the Armenian and Orthodox Churches can, for the sake of medieval theology, be broken down to two major points of contention. First, the Armenians rejected the Fourth Ecumenical Council, which was recognized by the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Pope in Rome, although many in Syria and Egypt opposed it. Second, the Armenian Church maintained that it was an autonomous church, which ran counter to Byzantine opinions on the matter. Although there were other issues, such as the Armenian use of unleavened bread and unmixed wine for the sacrament, these two matters were the main two points of contention.
What were the differences between the Byzantines and Armenians?
These tensions and the lack of compromise were an essential part to Byzantine-Armenian relations for centuries and resulted in a lasting separation between the Orthodox and Armenian Churches.
What did the Armenians reject?
First, the Armenians rejected the Fourth Ecumenical Council, which was recognized by the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Pope in Rome, although many in Syria and Egypt opposed it. Second, the Armenian Church maintained that it was an autonomous church, which ran counter to Byzantine opinions on the matter.
What do monophysites believe?
Monophysites believe that Christ has one nature, where divinity and humanity are perfectly united. Among these dissenting people were the Armenians. The lack of Armenian participation did not incline the Armenians to agree to the Council’s decisions either, as their voices and concerns had not been heard.
How long did iconoclasm last?
Lasting from 726 to 843 CE, iconoclasm attracted all of the attention of church officials, putting any sort of talks with Armenia on the sidelines for over a century. Byzantine Iconoclasm. Unknown Artist (Public Domain) These talks would begin again in earnest under the aegis of Patriarch Photios in the 9th century.
Which ecumenical council did the Armenians reject?
The Armenians rejected the Fourth Ecumenical Council, which was recognized by the Patriarch of Constantinople, & the Armenian Church maintained that it was autonomous.
What does the Armenian religion believe in?
The Armenian Christianity has adopted the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity. That’s to say, the Church believes that there is one deity – God – represented in the form of the Holy Trinity. One God in 3 manifestations, Father, Son and the Holy Spirit.
What was the first Christian church in Armenia?
Ejmiatsin Cathedral was the first Christian church built in the Armenian Highland. It is the residence of the Armenian Apostolic Church and has always been a pilgrimage venue for all Christian Armenians. It’s also home for the oldest university in modern Armenia which is religious too – the Gevorkian Theological Seminary founded in 1874.
What is the major cathedral in Armenia?
The major one is Ejmiatsin Cathedral, which, together with the surrounding churches is in the UNESCO heritage list. If you want to know more about why it is there and what you should wear when visiting it check out my post about UNESCO sites in Armenia.
Why do people buy grapes?
People usually buy grapes and take them to church for blessing. After, they take just a little cluster home for all family members to taste at least one grape. It’s said that this ritual is opening the harvest season and thus blessing all the harvest till the next year’s autumn.
What was the main religion of Armenia?
Before the introduction of this new religion, Armenia’s main religion was Hetanism, a.k.a the Armenian paganism. This was a native religion, that’s to say, an ethnic belief system. The conversion wasn’t smooth though. It was imposed by the ruling dynasty and pagan temples were forcefully destroyed.
Why does the church bless grapes?
So why does the church bless grapes? And why especially grapes and not any other fruit? You see, the explanation of the church is that this is the only fruit real wine is made of. And wine symbolizes the blood of Jesus Christ. And the blessing ceremony happens on Mary’s Assumption day, at the ending part of the liturgy.
Which religious groups are allowed to build, visit and perform ceremonies in their places of worship?
All religious minorities are allowed to build, visit and perform ceremonies in their places of worship. The Blue Mosque in Yerevan is a vivid example. Pagans hold rites and ceremonies in Garni temple, Zorats Karer astrological monument in Syunik and in similar outdoor spaces. JWs, Mormons and Evangelical groups have their worship buildings and shrines in different big and small towns.
Why did Tiridates the Great adopt Christianity?
The religion was also a useful point of distinction between Armenia and Sasanid Persia, who had been trying to spread Zoroastrianism in the country. Christianity, therefore, became a means to resist Iranian cultural imperialism.
What is Saint Gregory credited with?
Gregory is credited with converting king Tiridates the Great (r. c. 298 to c. 330 CE) to the new religion, formally establishing the Armenian Church, and spreading Christianity throughout his country. For these achievements, Saint Gregory has become the patron saint of Armenia. Gregory was born in Cappadocia and raised as a Christian, …
How did Armenia become a Christian state?
That is the legend of how Armenia became a Christian state. Modern historians, though, prefer a more organic process of acceptance and conversion occurring in different places at different times. They also prefer the more secure date of around 314 CE of Armenian’s official adoption of Christianity. This followed the Roman emperor Constantine I ‘s Edict of Milan in 313 CE which legalised Christianity in the Roman Empire of which Armenia was a province. It seems probable that Christianity actually entered Armenia by two separate but more or less contemporary routes, thus explaining the conflicting accounts in ancient historical records.
What was the first state to adopt Christianity?
The conversion of Armenia to Christianity was probably the most crucial step in its history. It turned Armenia sharply away from its Iranian past and stamped it for centuries with an intrinsic character as clear to the native population as to those outside its borders, who identified Armenia almost at once as the first state to adopt Christianity. (81)
How did the Church gain control over Armenian culture?
The church gradually gained control over Armenian culture, literature and education and, with the support of the state, instituted a Christian hegemonic, “totalising discourse”. Armenian culture, identity, and history came to be viewed nearly exclusively through the prism of Christian theology. (40)
What were the traditional rituals that were forbidden?
Other traditional rituals which were now forbidden included lamentations for the dead and mourning dances during which mourners often cut their faces and arms. The Church brought benefits as well as restrictions, though, setting up hospitals, hostels, orphanages, and leprosaria for the poor and sick. Remove Ads.
Did Saint Gregory convert to Christianity?
Accordingly, Gregory was freed from Khor Virap, and naturally, besides trying to cure the king, he made his best efforts to convert him to Christianity. Tradition (and the Armenian Apostolic Church) records that Tiridates was indeed cured and converted to his new faith in 301 CE by Saint Gregory. Remove Ads.
Christians of various denominations make up around 10 per cent of Syria’s population.
Having rejected the verdict of Chalcedon, 451, the Suryanis were virtually eradicated by Roman imperial forces. Muslim Arab conquest was a relief from persecution and their numbers grew. They were numerically preponderant in the Syrian countryside until virtually exterminated by Tamarlaine’s forces in the late fourteenth century.
Prior to the outbreak of the civil war, the Christian community was flourishing in Syria and experienced lower rates of emigration than other Christian communities in the region, such as Iraq.
What happened in 570?
New persecution, and renewed resistance under Vardan II, flared up in 570. But in the reign of ?osrow II, Armenia had come to be seen as a stable province of the Empire; so the Sasanians accorded some favor toward the Armenian Church, and accordingly, toward Monophysitism.
What are the three terms used for Christians in Middle Persian?
In Pre-Islamic Persia: Literary Sources. In Middle Persian there are three terms used for Christians: KLSTYD?N and N?CL?Y in the inscription on the Ka?ba-ye Zardo?t of the 3rd-century Zoroastrian high priest Kartir; and tarsāq, Sogdian loan-word trs?q, New Persian tarsā.
What is the meaning of "unbelievers" in the Psalter?
In the Pahlavi translation of the Psalter, unbelievers are called na-tarsāgān, lit. “unfearing ones.”. The term “Messianist” (cf. Ar. masī?ī ), used commonly in the Middle East of Christians, seems not to have been employed in Persia: for Syr. me?īhā, “Messiah”, the literal translation ?nwtky (pronounced * annūdag ), “annointed,” is employed.
How many Christian tombs are there in Iran?
By 250, the religion claimed so many adherents in Iran that no less than sixty Christian tombs are found on ?arg island in the Persian Gulf. One John of Persis is recorded at the Council of Nicaea in 325.
Why is the seven branched candelabrum not a gift of Helena?
If the seven-branched candelabrum was not actually a gift of Helena, it reflects the strong Iranian influence on Jewish art of the period. But the earliest Iranian contact with Christianity must be counted as the visit to the infant Jesus of the three Magi.
Where were the Christian bishops in Iran?
Iran III/2, p. 925); and Bardesanes (late 2nd-early 3rd century) refers to Christians in Parthia, Media, Kā?ān, and Pārs. By 250, the religion claimed so many adherents in Iran that no less than sixty Christian tombs are found on ?arg island in the Persian Gulf. One John of Persis is recorded at the Council of Nicaea in 325. In 410, a Synod was convened at Ctesiphon: The royal capital had become also the acknowledged center of Christianity in the Empire. The proceedings began with a prayer for the king, Yazdegerd I; and the Synod adopted the creed of Nicaea (Asmussen, Camb. Hist. Iran III/2, pp. 941-42). Six provinces were then listed as Christian jurisdictions, including Ray and Abar?ahr; in the late 6th century, Marv and Herat, whose Christian communities were already centuries old, are prominently mentioned. ?a?ālebī ( ?orar, p. 748) reports that in 651, it was the Bishop of Marv who contributed a sepulcher for the murdered Sasanian fugitive Yazdegerd III.
Where is the Savior’s temple?
The temple complex rises over Lake Hāmūn, where the Zoroastrian Sao?yant, “Savior,” is to be born. Christ is found in a rock-cave, like the infant Mithras, rather than a manger; and each Magus entering beholds the Lord at a different age, as though He were Zurvan.
What was the chief defect of the Catholicos system?
The chief defect of the system was that in future, the election of a Catholicos had to be approved by the king of Persia, which in practice meant that the office could only be filled by his nominee.
Was Nestorianism in the Roman Empire?
While Nestorianism was declining in the Roman empire, it was in ascendancy in Persia. The majority of the Persian clergy who had studied at Edessa and who were Nestorians in their theology came into prominence in the Persian church and through their influence, the Nestorian views were widespread. One such former student of Edessa was Barsauma who became the bishop of Nisibis. He made Nisibis the chief Nestorian centre in Mesopotamia. It is said of him that Nestorianism owed more to Barsauma for its spread in Persia than to any one else.
What religion was the main religion of the Sassanied period?
In Sassanied period, Zoroastrianism became the official religion of the state which led, from time to time, to the severe persecutions of religious minorities. There were persecutions of Christians under Shapur II in the fourth century and under Bahram V and Yezdegerd II in the fifth century.
How did the Sassanians organize their government?
The Sassanians organized their government on new lines. The first Sassanian king Ardashir began emphasising the close co-operation of the throne and Zoroastrian priesthood. Ardashir founded his power on a combination of religion and state. For him, religion may exist without a state, but a state cannot exist without religion; and it is by holy laws that a political association can alone be bound. He used the Zoroastrian clergy to legitimize his rule and in turn granted them special privileges. Thus the position of the king in Sassanied Persia was made far more stronger than it had been in Parthian times because of the close working alliance between the king and the priesthood formed by Ardashir I. In Sassanied period, Zoroastrianism became the official religion of the state which led, from time to time, to the severe persecutions of religious minorities. There were persecutions of Christians under Shapur II in the fourth century and under Bahram V and Yezdegerd II in the fifth century.
What was the capital of Adiabene?
Looking at the expansion of Christianity in the Parthian empire in such an early period, historians have raised the possibility that Arbela, the capital of Adiabene, if not prior to Edessa, could have been an independent focus, independent of Edessa, for missionary work throughout the Persian empire.
Why was the Homiletics school not neglected?
Homiletics was not neglected in the school, but it was based on a careful interpretation of the text. Theodore’s sense of history and disciplined thinking had compelled him to reject the allegorical method of the Alexandrians. "They (the Alexandrians), indeed, turn everything backward," writes Theodore, "since they wish to make no distinction between what the text says (historical) and dreams in the night." ( Ibid.)
Where was Nisibis located?
Nisibis which was situated west of Tigris was the seat of a Jewish Academy of learning whose fame was acknowledged in the first century even by the Rabbis in Palestine. Christianity spread in these areas in the first century itself.