Though the initial response was from the Jews,Christianity spread among the Persians. By the third century,according to Mingana,the majority of the inhabitants of Adiabene were Christians,and the majority of these and of the Christians in Persia generally were of Persian and not of semitic or Aramean birth and extraction.
What did the Persians think of Christianity?
For example, the Christian custom of burial of the dead, and their tendency to look upon celibacy as a superior form of living, were repugnant to Zoroastrian clergy. The Persians considered the Christians as a threat to national security as well as to national religion.
Are the Persians mentioned in the New Testament?
Iranians are mentioned again in the New Testament (commonly referred to as the .injil.). Persians were present at t he Feast of Pentecost which was celebrated fort y days after the ascension of Jesus to heaven.
Who is persecuting Christians in Iran?
It is important to hold accountable those Iranian individuals and institutions who are responsible for persecuting Christians. Three of the Islamist judges known to preside over the trials of Christians are Mashallah Ahmadzadeh, Mohammed Moghiseh, and Ahmad Zargar. The international community needs to consider imposing sanctions on them
Where was the first centre of Christianity in Persia?
One of the earliest centres of Christianity in Persia is said to be Arbel the capital of Adiabene. It was a small Persian border kingdom. Its capital Arbela was about fifty miles east of river Tigris.
What was the chief defect of the Catholicos system?
The chief defect of the system was that in future, the election of a Catholicos had to be approved by the king of Persia, which in practice meant that the office could only be filled by his nominee.
Was Nestorianism in the Roman Empire?
While Nestorianism was declining in the Roman empire, it was in ascendancy in Persia. The majority of the Persian clergy who had studied at Edessa and who were Nestorians in their theology came into prominence in the Persian church and through their influence, the Nestorian views were widespread. One such former student of Edessa was Barsauma who became the bishop of Nisibis. He made Nisibis the chief Nestorian centre in Mesopotamia. It is said of him that Nestorianism owed more to Barsauma for its spread in Persia than to any one else.
What religion was the main religion of the Sassanied period?
In Sassanied period, Zoroastrianism became the official religion of the state which led, from time to time, to the severe persecutions of religious minorities. There were persecutions of Christians under Shapur II in the fourth century and under Bahram V and Yezdegerd II in the fifth century.
How did the Sassanians organize their government?
The Sassanians organized their government on new lines. The first Sassanian king Ardashir began emphasising the close co-operation of the throne and Zoroastrian priesthood. Ardashir founded his power on a combination of religion and state. For him, religion may exist without a state, but a state cannot exist without religion; and it is by holy laws that a political association can alone be bound. He used the Zoroastrian clergy to legitimize his rule and in turn granted them special privileges. Thus the position of the king in Sassanied Persia was made far more stronger than it had been in Parthian times because of the close working alliance between the king and the priesthood formed by Ardashir I. In Sassanied period, Zoroastrianism became the official religion of the state which led, from time to time, to the severe persecutions of religious minorities. There were persecutions of Christians under Shapur II in the fourth century and under Bahram V and Yezdegerd II in the fifth century.
What was the capital of Adiabene?
Looking at the expansion of Christianity in the Parthian empire in such an early period, historians have raised the possibility that Arbela, the capital of Adiabene, if not prior to Edessa, could have been an independent focus, independent of Edessa, for missionary work throughout the Persian empire.
Why was the Homiletics school not neglected?
Homiletics was not neglected in the school, but it was based on a careful interpretation of the text. Theodore’s sense of history and disciplined thinking had compelled him to reject the allegorical method of the Alexandrians. "They (the Alexandrians), indeed, turn everything backward," writes Theodore, "since they wish to make no distinction between what the text says (historical) and dreams in the night." ( Ibid.)
Where was Nisibis located?
Nisibis which was situated west of Tigris was the seat of a Jewish Academy of learning whose fame was acknowledged in the first century even by the Rabbis in Palestine. Christianity spread in these areas in the first century itself.
What was the purpose of the school at Urmia?
Their main purpose was to educate Nestorians to carry the Christian message to their Muslim compatriots (Elder, p. 7; Waterfield, p. 103). The school at Urmia was founded in about 1255/1839 and taught smithcraft and carpet weaving in addition to academic courses.
How did the Pahlavi shahs affect the church?
Changes in Persia brought about by the Pahlavi shahs affected the church in many ways. On one hand, nationalist policies limited the work of Christian missionaries still further, but, on the other, the Pahlavis were liberal in matters of religion, and Christians were not prevented from preaching or distributing literature. In 1311 ?./1932 all elementary education was taken out of the hands of foreign nationals, and in 1313 ?./1934 American missionaries were ordered out of Azerbaijan (Elder, p. 71). By that time, however, the Persian Presbyterian and Anglican churches had both become independent of the denominational headquarters in the United States and Great Britain, and both obtained permission to establish parochial elementary and secondary schools under Persian supervision (Waterfield, pp. 169ff.). For a time the two churches even entertained the idea of union; although union was never realized, a joint literature committee was formed to prepare a revised hymnal. Other joint activities included publication of books and pamphlets and a Christian magazine, Bible-study classes, and conferences for young people (Elder, pp. 89-97). In 1319 ?./1940 all educational institutions were nationalized, and the government purchased the property of the Presbyterian and Anglican missions (Elder, p. 77).
What did the Roman Catholic clergy do in Persia?
The Roman Catholic clergy in Persia served the spiritual needs of Roman Catholic foreigners and of Armenian and Nestorian uniates (Christians who accept the authority of the pope but follow their own rites in their native languages), but they generally limited their work among Persian Muslims to education.
How many schools did the Perkins mission have?
In 1255/1839 Perkins procured a royal edict commending him for his efforts in educating young people. By 1304/1887 the mission had established eighty-one schools, with 1,823 pupils (Elder, p. 18; “Dāstān-ī,” pp. 60-61). Soon the American mission had grown to include doctors, educators, and preachers.
What was the main group of Christians in Azerbaijan?
31/651) Christians had the status of a protected minority ( ?emmī, q.v.); the main group, concentrated in western Azerbaijan, has been variously known as Nestorian, Assyrian ( ā?ūrī ), and Chaldean.
Why did Reverend Bruce go to Isfahan?
In 1285-86/1869 the Church Missionary Society of London sent Reverend Bruce for a two-year sojourn in Isfahan in order to revise Martyn’s Bible translation. His arrival in Persia coincided with the famine and cholera epidemic of 1287-88/1870-71.
When did Catholics open schools in Persia?
In ?afar 1256/April 1840, by a farmān (edict) from Mo?ammad Shah Qājār (r. 1250-64/1834-48), Roman Catholics were granted permission to open schools in Persia without fear of harassment from Armenians (“Dāstān-ī,” pp. 63-66), and Boré persuaded the French Lazarist brothers to come to Persia (Boré).
What happened in 570?
New persecution, and renewed resistance under Vardan II, flared up in 570. But in the reign of ?osrow II, Armenia had come to be seen as a stable province of the Empire; so the Sasanians accorded some favor toward the Armenian Church, and accordingly, toward Monophysitism.
What are the three terms used for Christians in Middle Persian?
In Pre-Islamic Persia: Literary Sources. In Middle Persian there are three terms used for Christians: KLSTYD?N and N?CL?Y in the inscription on the Ka?ba-ye Zardo?t of the 3rd-century Zoroastrian high priest Kartir; and tarsāq, Sogdian loan-word trs?q, New Persian tarsā.
What is the meaning of "unbelievers" in the Psalter?
In the Pahlavi translation of the Psalter, unbelievers are called na-tarsāgān, lit. “unfearing ones.”. The term “Messianist” (cf. Ar. masī?ī ), used commonly in the Middle East of Christians, seems not to have been employed in Persia: for Syr. me?īhā, “Messiah”, the literal translation ?nwtky (pronounced * annūdag ), “annointed,” is employed.
How many Christian tombs are there in Iran?
By 250, the religion claimed so many adherents in Iran that no less than sixty Christian tombs are found on ?arg island in the Persian Gulf. One John of Persis is recorded at the Council of Nicaea in 325.
Why is the seven branched candelabrum not a gift of Helena?
If the seven-branched candelabrum was not actually a gift of Helena, it reflects the strong Iranian influence on Jewish art of the period. But the earliest Iranian contact with Christianity must be counted as the visit to the infant Jesus of the three Magi.
Where were the Christian bishops in Iran?
Iran III/2, p. 925); and Bardesanes (late 2nd-early 3rd century) refers to Christians in Parthia, Media, Kā?ān, and Pārs. By 250, the religion claimed so many adherents in Iran that no less than sixty Christian tombs are found on ?arg island in the Persian Gulf. One John of Persis is recorded at the Council of Nicaea in 325. In 410, a Synod was convened at Ctesiphon: The royal capital had become also the acknowledged center of Christianity in the Empire. The proceedings began with a prayer for the king, Yazdegerd I; and the Synod adopted the creed of Nicaea (Asmussen, Camb. Hist. Iran III/2, pp. 941-42). Six provinces were then listed as Christian jurisdictions, including Ray and Abar?ahr; in the late 6th century, Marv and Herat, whose Christian communities were already centuries old, are prominently mentioned. ?a?ālebī ( ?orar, p. 748) reports that in 651, it was the Bishop of Marv who contributed a sepulcher for the murdered Sasanian fugitive Yazdegerd III.
Where is the Savior’s temple?
The temple complex rises over Lake Hāmūn, where the Zoroastrian Sao?yant, “Savior,” is to be born. Christ is found in a rock-cave, like the infant Mithras, rather than a manger; and each Magus entering beholds the Lord at a different age, as though He were Zurvan.
Why was Farzana released?
Farzana says she was released after her husband signed a form that she wouldn’t return to church. But her church advised her to leave Iran. A smuggler helped her family escape to Turkey, where they settled in Denizli, a city of 600,000 in southwest of the country.
Why did Farzana convert to Islam?
Farzana says one reason she converted was the way Iran’s interpretation of Islam treats women. When she divorced an abusive husband, she says, an Iranian court granted him custody of her older son and daughter. Under Iran’s Sharia Islamic law, fathers get custody of older children.
How old is Farzana from the parish?
Among the parishioners are Farzana, a 37-year-old hairdresser from Tehran, and her daughter Andya, 3, who runs around, taking photos with her mother’s cellphone. "It feels good. Our relationship to God becomes closer," Farzana says.
Where did Fariba Nawa preach?
Fariba Nawa. In a hotel conference room in Denizli, Turkey, about 60 Iranians sing along to songs praising Jesus mixed with Iranian pop music. When the music stops, American pastor Karl Vickery preaches with the help of a Persian translator. "I’m not famous or rich. But I know Jesus.
What does the Farsi-speaking Christian convert shout?
The Farsi-speaking Christian converts shout "Hallelujah!". and clap. Vickery, who’s part of a visiting delegation from Beaumont, Texas, then offers to pray for each person in the room. Women with hair dyed blond and short skirts and clean-shaven men in slacks stand up to pray in unison.
Why are secret churches growing in Iran?
Christian groups report that secret home churches are growing in Iran and one reason, says an award-winning Iranian athlete who converted to Christianity, is to rebel against the Islamic regime.
Why do evangelicals continue to preach the Bible?
Despite local objections, evangelical pastors say they will continue to preach the Bible because Turkey’s constitution gives them the right.
What are the judges responsible for in Iran?
The judges are responsible for convicting Christians on trumped up charges. They wield Iran’s legal system as a systemic tool of repression against religious minorities. Often, when Christians stand firm in their faith, Iran’s judges send them to the notorious Evin Prison, located on the outskirts of Tehran.
How many Christians have been arrested in Iran?
Most recently, nine Christians in Iran, possibly converts, have been convicted by the Islamic court, and each sentenced to five years in prison. The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) arrested them for attending church services at a private house.
What is the charge of Open Doors USA?
Open Doors USA stated that one particular charge — "acting against national security" – is often used by the Iranian authorities "to prosecute Christians for their house church activities.". The claim of Iranian leaders that the peaceful religious practices of a minority group pose a grave a threat to national security is totally unacceptable. …
Who are the three judges who preside over the trials of Christians?
Translations of this item: German. Three of the Islamist judges known to preside over the trials of Christians are Mashallah Ahmadzadeh, Mohammed Moghiseh, and Ahmad Zargar. The international community needs to consider imposing sanctions on them. Converts to Christianity from Islam, according the Iran’s Islamic law, can face the death penalty.
Can a convert to Christianity from Islam get the death penalty?
Converts to Christianity from Islam, according the Iran’s Islamic law, can face the death penalty. The Iranian Islamist judges generally resort to verses from the Quran and Hadith (Muhammad’s sayings and acts) to justify their verdicts. One particular verse in Qur’an states:
Who is Majid Rafizadeh?
Majid Rafizadeh is a business strategist and advisor, Harvard-educated scholar, political scientist, board member of Harvard International Review, and president of the International American Council on the Middle East. He has authored several books on Islam and US foreign policy. He can be reached at [email protected]
Does Iran have freedom of religion?
Under international law, the Iranian government has an obligation to respect freedom of religion. Yet, while Christians are being increasingly persecuted and their rights are violated in Iran at an unprecedented level, the international community still remains silent.