MāoriChristianityUntil the mid-20th century, few Māoriwere secular. Traditionally Māorirecognised a pantheon of gods and spiritual influences. From the late 1820s Māoritransformed their moral practices, religious lives and political thinking, as they made Christianitytheir own.
What is the religion of Māori?
Māori Christianity. Until the mid-20th century, few Māori were secular. Traditionally Māori recognised a pantheon of gods and spiritual influences. From the late 1820s Māori transformed their moral practices, religious lives and political thinking, as they made Christianity their own.
Why did Māori drift away from Christianity?
Despite their initial commitment, Māori drifted from Christianity because of missionaries’ roles in injurious land deals, church negligence caused by settler capture of clergy, and sectarian jealousies.
When did Māori become secular?
Until the mid-20th century, few Māori were secular. Traditionally Māori recognised a pantheon of gods and spiritual influences. From the late 1820s Māori transformed their moral practices, religious lives and political thinking, as they made Christianity their own.
When did Māori become part of the Anglican Church?
In the late 1800s, after the New Zealand wars, Māori became less powerful in the Anglican Church (and in New Zealand society as a whole). However, by 1928 a new generation of Māori leaders had successfully called for a Māori Anglican bishop. After the Second World War many Māori moved from rural areas to the cities.
What did Tohunga do?
Tohunga, often high-born, carefully selected and highly-educated, acted as mediums of the gods, interpreting signs, addressing the gods on the people’s behalf, and leading incantations, rituals, offerings and sacrifices; they were consulted on military strategies, horticulture, fishing expeditions, and health.
When did the Anglican missionaries arrive in Northland?
Anglican lay missionaries arrived in Northland in 1814, followed by Wesleyans in 1822, and Catholics in 1838. Māori were fascinated by the all-powerful God, and the Bible, full of wonderful stories, was key to the desirable new arts of reading and writing. Northern Māori quickly evangelised their southern relatives and friends.
Who were the Wesleyans who visited Marlborough in 1839?
Northern Māori quickly evangelised their southern relatives and friends. The Wesleyans, Bumby and Hobbs, visited Marlborough in June 1839 and discovered ‘… true light has shone teaching the people to observe the Sabbath and worship God which they do … to the best of their ability twice a day’.
When did Ironside’s Marlborough congregation collapse?
Ironside’s Marlborough congregation collapsed from 1,500 to six members when Ngāti Toa and Te ātiawa returned to the North Island after the Wairau Affray in June 1843. In Nelson, ministers served both European and Māori flocks.
Who re-evangelized Te Tau Ihu?
In the late 19 th century many Te Tau Ihu Māori were re-evangelised by Mormon missionaries, or joined syncretic religions which fused Biblical ideas and traditional beliefs. A Ngāti Koata/Ngāti Kuia man from Pelorus, Haimona Patete , founded the Seven Rules of Jehovah church, which flourished in Marlborough and Wairarapa for about 25 years from the 1890s.
Who was the missionary who visited Marlborough and Nelson?
Octavius Hadfield, Church Missionary Society, who visited Marlborough and Nelson from Waikanae from 1839, teaching and baptising, reported a congregation of 900 at Okukari (outer Tory Channel) in July 1841. Samuel Ironside, Wesleyan, established himself at Ngakuta, Port Underwood, in December 1840.
What was Te Kooti’s religion?
Te Kooti converted his fellow prisoners to his new religion, named Ringatū (raised hand) after the ritual used as a tribute to God. Te Kooti was pursued by government soldiers through the Urewera from 1869 to 1872. Ringatū became strong in Bay of Plenty.
What was the name of the movement that grew out of disillusionment with missionaries, settlers and government?
Pai Mārire and Kīngitanga. Independent Māori Christian movements such as Pai Mārire (goodness and peace) flourished during the wars of the 1860s, as disillusionment grew with missionaries, settlers and government.
What was the role of Christianity in the Waikato War?
During the Waikato war, Ngāti Hauā chief Wiremu Tāmihana fought to defend God, (Māori) King and country against what he (and many others) saw as British aggression.
Which church attracted the largest following in the 1840s?
By the mid-1840s, probably a larger proportion of Māori than Britons in the United Kingdom regularly attended services. Te Hāhi Mihinare , the Anglican Church, attracted the largest following (and remains the largest Māori denomination), followed by Methodists and Catholics.
Why did the police arrest Rua?
In 1916 armed police marched into the village to arrest Rua for selling liquor without a licence. In the gunfight that erupted, two Māori, including one of Rua’s sons, were killed.
Who was the mouthpiece of Jehovah?
Te Whiti-o-Rongomai. Te Whiti-o-Rongomai was a Taranaki prophet and leader who called himself the ‘mouthpiece of Jehovah’ and a ‘small Christ’. A resistance movement developed around his settlement at Parihaka, with ploughmen disrupting government attempts to survey and occupy confiscated land on the Waimate plains.
What are the three cultural streams of the Anglican Church?
Since 1992 the Anglican Church has had three cultural streams – for Pākehā, Māori and Pacific peoples – and all priests received training in the Māori language.
What was the first missionary to come to New Zealand?
The Anglican Church was the first to send missionaries to New Zealand in 1814. Its Māori name, Te Hahi Mihinare, means ‘the missionary church’. Anglican missionaries used Māori converts to spread their message. The first Māori priest, Rota Waitoa, was ordained in 1860.
Where did the Salvation Army come from?
Salvation Army. When the Salvation Army first came to New Zealand, they focused on urban areas, where few Māori lived. In 1888 a mission to Māori began on the Whanganui River, and in the mid-20th century the Army ran a mission on the East Coast. Since 2000 the Salvation Army has increased its work among Māori.
When was the Marae opened?
In 1947 a marae was opened in the Bay of Plenty as a base for Māori in the church. Te Wānanga a Rangi, which provides Māori-focused theological training, was established in 1953.
When did the first Catholic missionaries arrive in New Zealand?
The first Catholic missionaries arrived in New Zealand in 1838 and worked with Māori in Northland and then Waikato. For many years after the New Zealand wars there was little missionary work among Māori, but many Māori Catholic communities stayed loyal to the church. In the 1940s Wiremu Te āwhitu became the first Māori Catholic priest, …
When did the Methodist Church come to New Zealand?
Methodist Church. Methodist missionaries arrived in New Zealand in 1822. Māori ministers were paid less than their Pākeha colleagues, but were very important in the church’s growth. In the 1970s Rua Rakena published a book calling for a change in how Māori were treated in the church, and the Methodist Church became more bicultural.
Who was the first Presbyterian minister in New Zealand?
The first Māori Presbyterian minister, Timu Teoke, was ordained in 1931. In 1945 there was a call for more Māori leaders within the church. In 1947 a marae was opened in the Bay of Plenty as a base for Māori in …
What was the second war in the Waikato region?
The fighting resumed in the Second Taranaki War in April 1863 after Governor Grey built an attack road into the Waikato area and drove the Taranaki Māori from the Tataraimaka block. While fighting raged in Taranaki once again, the Waikato War began in July 1863, and the Waikato River region, the centre of the King Movement tribes, became the main target of the Europeans. Once again the war was decided by sieges of Māori pā s, but the Māori also began to employ guerrilla tactics. British troops were aided by gunboats and forest ranger units made up of colonial volunteers. The Europeans won notable victories at Meremere in October 1863 and at Rangiriri in November. The fall of the Orakau pā in early April 1864 essentially brought the Waikato War to an end.
What was the name of the battle that the British defeated in 1860?
The war consisted essentially of a series of generally successful sieges of Maori pa s (fortified villages) by British troops and militia. The British were defeated during an attack (June 1860) on Puketakauere pa when the Maori executed a surprise counterattack, but the Maori were defeated at Orongomai in October and Mahoetahi in November. The war ended in a truce after the surrender of the Te Arei pa in late March 1861. The Maori remained in possession of the European-owned Tataraimaka block of land.
What was the rise of the King Movement?
The rise of the King Movement. After the British assumed formal control of New Zealand in 1840, European settlement and government began to alarm the Maori, especially in North Island.
What is an encyclopedia Britannica editor?
Encyclopaedia Britannica’s editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. … See Article History.
When did the Waikato War start?
While fighting raged in Taranaki once again, the Waikato War began in July 1863, and the Waikato River region, the centre of the King Movement tribes, became the main target of the Europeans. Once again the war was decided by sieges of Maori pa s, but the Maori also began to employ guerrilla tactics.
When did New Zealand join Europe?
With the introduction of muskets, disease, Western agricultural methods, and missionaries, Maori culture and social structure began to disintegrate. By the late 1830s New Zealand had been joined to Europe, and European settlers landed by the score.
When did Maori arrive in New Zealand?
This historical account provides the basis for traditional Maori social organization and is generally supported by archaeological discoveries, which have dated Maori arrival in New Zealand to about 1300 ce.
About the Author
Joe Koizim graduated from Georgetown University in 2010 with a major in mathematics and minor in economics. He participated in the Berkley Center’s Junior Year Abroad Network while studying in New Zealand during the spring semester of 2009.
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What are some examples of Maori cultural dances?
Maori Cultural Dances. Two other important and closely related artforms in Maori society are song and dance. A common example is haka. Haka is a class of dances involving lively movements with the body accompanied by chanting and energetic vocalizations.
What is the Maori war dance?
The Maori war dance traditionally consisted of the warriors intentionally making ugly faces and sounds while dancing to frighten and demoralize the enemy. Te Wairoa: The Buried Village of New Zealand.
What religion did Maori adopt?
During the colonial period, many Maori adopted Christianity. In the mid-19th century, numerous Maori Christians used their faith as a justification for resisting the British government, as the British encroached on their ancestral lands. Most Maori Christians are part of the Anglican tradition today. There are also many Maori Methodists and Catholics.
What are the Maori people?
Since the Maori are descended from Polynesian voyagers who settled the islands in the 13th or 14th century, the Maori have many social, metaphysical, and religious concepts in common with other Polynesian groups . These concepts include mana and tapu.
What tribes did the Haast’s eagle attack?
The most high-status individuals in ancient Maori society were the chiefs, followed by commoners and slaves.
What is the Maori name for New Zealand?
Since New Zealand, or as the Maori call it, Aotearoa, represented the southwestern edge of the known world to the Polynesians of the 13th and 14th centuries, the Maori could be considered a people living at the world’s edge. Model of a typical Pā (hillfort) built by Māori on headlands (for defense). ( Public Domain )
How many Maori people are there today?
There are over 500,000 Maori people living today.
What is the Maori culture?
The Maori are one of the many indigenous cultures that have been able to thrive, relatively, in the aftermath of European colonization. Even two centuries after the arrival of the Pakeha, the Maori have retained many aspects of their culture and are continuing to grow in number and influence in New Zealand society. The people at the world’s edge continue to move closer to what has become the world’s center.
What are some examples of Maori dances?
Two other important and closely related artforms in Maori society are song and dance. A common example is haka. Haka is a class of dances involving lively movements with the body accompanied by chanting and energetic vocalizations. There are several different types which vary in style and form depending on their purpose. Haka can be performed without weapons for ceremonial purposes or to motivate a group to accomplish a task. It can also be used as a war dance, in which case it is often done with weapons. The Maori war dance traditionally consisted of the warriors intentionally making ugly faces and sounds while dancing to frighten and demoralize the enemy.
What did the Maori trade with?
The Maori began to trade with Europeans in earnest in the 19th century. Some of the most important European trade goods among the Maori were pigs and potatoes. These were quickly added alongside traditional Maori foods such as kumara, pikopiko, and karengo. In 1840, New Zealand became a British colony after the treaty of Waitangi. The Maori resisted at first, but were gradually subdued and lost much of their land to European settlers.
What was the last landmass to be colonized by humans?
New Zealand was one of the last landmasses to be colonized by humans. When Pleistocene megafauna had gone extinct elsewhere in the world, New Zealand was still inhabited by the moas, giant flightless birds that were hunted by early Maori settlers. The ancestors of the Maori settled one of the last truly pristine wildernesses without human activity and they continue to adapt to new environments as the world changes.
Where did the Maori come from?
The Maori likely originate from East Polynesia near the Society Islands and the southern Cook Islands. In Maori legends, the Maori homeland is a place called Hawaiki which appears to be at least semi-mythical. In Maori mythology, it is also the home of the gods as well as the place where people go after death.
What is a pwhiri?
4. A pōwhiri is a Māori welcoming ceremony that includes speeches, dancing, singing and the hongi. It is used to welcome guests onto a marae or for other ceremonies of encounter such as the dedication of a building or welcoming new families at a school, or new colleagues at a workplace. When a pōwhiri is done, guests should stand at the waharoa (gateway or main entranceway), while the host or tangata whenua (local people of the land) stand at the wharenui (meeting house).
What is the last process of a pwhiri?
8. The last process of a pōwhiri is taking the visitor to the wharekai (dining room). Manuhiri (visitors) will be called in for food. It is polite to let kaumātua (elders) go first and wait until a karakia (grace) has been said before eating.
What is the custom of greeting people with hongi?
The head is bent, eyes are lowered or closed, and noses are pressed together before stepping back. The hongi is a traditional Māori greeting. 10. Pounamu is considered a taonga (treasure).
What is a ta moko?
2. Ta moko are traditional Māori tattoo, often on the face. The purpose and application of moko are sacred and valued as a taonga (treasure). Facial tattoos above the eyes denote spiritual wisdom while below the eyes allude to physical achievements.
What is a karakia?
Karakia are traditional Māori incantations and prayers, used to invoke spiritual guidance and protection such as the blessing of a house, for safe travels, before the preparation of food. A karakia is also considered as a formal greeting when beginning a ceremony. 4.
What does the speaker do in the wharenui?
7. A speaker stands inside the wharenui (meeting house) and gives an oration. This speaker is often commenced by a man. Also remember that there is no food or drink to be taken into or consumed in the wharenui.
What does it mean to remove your shoes and hats before entering the sacred wharenui?
Removing your shoes and hats before entering the sacred wharenui is a sign of respect and connects allows you to connect with your ancestors, with your bare feet and open mind. 2.