are maronite christians catholic or eastern orthodox

are maronite christians catholic or eastern orthodox插图


What is the Maronite Church?

Written By: Maronite church, one of the largest Eastern rite communities of the Roman Catholic Church, prominent especially in modern Lebanon; it is the only Eastern rite church that has no non-Catholic or Orthodox counterpart.

Did the Maronite Church ever lack communion with the Holy See?

There is a strong tradition among the Maronites that their church never lacked communion with the Holy See. Patriarch Jeremias II Al-Amshitti (1199-1230) became the first Maronite Patriarch to visit Rome when he attended the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215.

Are Maronites Monothelites?

Maronite church. Though their traditions assert that the Maronites were always orthodox Christians in union with the Roman see, there is evidence that for centuries they were Monothelites, followers of the heretical doctrine of Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, who affirmed that there was a divine but no human will in Christ.

Is the orthodoxy of the Maronites really constant?

It would be pleasant to be able at least to say that the orthodoxy of the Maronites has been constant since 1182, but, unfortunately, even this cannot be asserted. There have been at least partial defections among them.

What language do the Maronites speak?

The church retains the ancient West Syrian liturgy, often delivered in Syriac even though the vernacular tongue of the modern Maronites is Arabic. Contact with Rome has been close and cordial, but it was not until after the Second Vatican Council that the Maronites were freed of papal efforts to Latinize their rite.

Why did the Maronites maintain their religion and customs under the protection of France?

Under the rule of the Ottoman Turks, the Maronites maintained their religion and customs under the protection of France, largely because of their geographic isolation.

Where did the Maronite Church originate?

The church is in canonicalcommunion with the Roman Catholic Churchand is the only Eastern rite churchthat has no counterpart outside that union.The Maronites trace their origins to St. Maron, or Maro (Arabic: Mārūn), a Syrian hermit of the late 4th and early 5th centuries, and St. John Maron, or Joannes Maro (Arabic: Yū?annā Mārūn), patriarchof Antioch in 685–707, under whose leadership the invading Byzantinearmies of Justinian IIwere routed in 684, making the Maronites a fully independent people.

What is the Maronites?

Maronites, a Roman Catholic Eastern rite group that originated in the region, make up more than one-fifth of the population. A number of other Christian communities are also present, including the Greek Orthodox and the Greek Catholics. The Druze constitute a small percentage of the…

What is an encyclopedia editor?

Encyclopaedia Britannica’s editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.

When did the Maronites accept Latin obedience?

A number of Maronites of the Lebanon region accepted the Latin obedience late in the 12th century. After some initial confusion, the native hierarchies were able to resume their functions.…

Where are Maronites found?

Maronites are also found in southern Europe and North and South America, having emigrated under the pressure of economic instability and periods of violence since the late 19th century. The émigrés keep their own liturgy and have their own clergy, some of whom are married.

What was the Maronite organization?

For many centuries the Maronite mountaineers have been able to keep themselves half independent of the Ottoman Empire. At the opening of the nineteenth century their organization was entirely feudal. The aristocratic families—who, especially when they traveled in Europe, affected princely rank—elected the emir. The power of the Maronite emir, preponderated in the Lebanon, especially when the Syrian family of Beni Shibab forsook Islam for Christianity. The famous emir Beshir, ostensibly a Mussulman, was really a Maronite; but after his fall the condition of the Maronites changed for the worse. A merciless struggle against the Druses, commencing in 1845, devastated the whole Lebanon. Two emirs were then created, a Maronite and a Druse, both bearing the title of Kaimakam, and they were held responsible to the Pasha of Saida. In 1860 the Druses, impelled by fanaticism, massacred a large number, of Maronites at Damascus and in the Lebanon. As the Turkish Government looked on supinely at this process of extermination, France intervened: an expedition led by General de Beaufort d’Hautpoult restored order. In 1861 the present system, with a single governor for all the Lebanon, was inaugurated. This governor is appointed by the Turkish Government for five years. There are no more feudal rights; all are equal before the law, without distinction of race; each nation has its sheik, or mayor, who takes cognizance of communal affairs, and is a judge in the provincial council. Every Maronite between the ages of fifteen and sixty pays taxes, with the exception of the clergy, though contributions are levied on monastic property. In contrast to the rule among the other rites, the Maronite patriarch is not obliged to solicit his firman of investiture from the sultan; but, on the other hand, he is not the temporal head of his nation, and has no agent at the Sublime Porte, the Maronites being, together with the other Uniat communities, represented by the Vakeel of the Latins. Outside of the Lebanon they are entirely subject to the Turks; in these regions the bishops—e.g. the Archbishop of Beirut—must obtain their berat, in default of which they would have no standing with the civil government, and could not sit in the provincial council.

Why was John Maro a patriarch?

The Maronites insist, affirming that St. John Maro must have been Patriarch of Antioch because his works present him under that title. The works of John Maro referred to are an exposition of the Liturgy of St. James and a treatise on the Faith.

How many dioceses are there in the Maronite Church?

B. The Maronite Church .—The Maronite Church is divided into nine dioceses: Gibail and Batrun (60,000 souls); Beirut and one part of the Lebanon (50,000); Tyre and Sidon (47,000); Baalbek and Kesraouan (40,000); Tripoli (35,000), Cyprus and another part of the Lebanon (30,000); Damascus and Hauran (26,000); Aleppo and Cilicia (5000); Egypt (7000). The last-named diocese is under a vicar patriarchal, who also has charge of the Maronite communities in foreign parts—Leghorn, Marseilles, Paris —and particularly those in America .

Why are there bloody vendettas in the mountains?

Bloody vendettas, due to family and clan rivalries, are still kept up in the mountain districts.. The population increases very rapidly, and numbers of Maronites emigrate to the different provinces of the Ottoman Empire, to Europe, particularly France, to the French colonies, but most of all to the United States.

What is the monastic habit of Aintoura?

The monastic habit consists of a black tunic and a girdle of leather, a cowl, mantle, and sandals. —There are also seven monasteries containing about 200 religious, under a rule founded by a former Bishop of Aleppo. At Aintoura, also, there are some Maronite sisters following the Salesian Rule.

How many monasteries are there in the Aleppines?

The Aleppines have 6 monasteries; the Isaians, 13 or 14; the Baladites, 25. The Aleppines—have a procurator at Rome, residing near S. Pietro in Vincoli. The lay brothers give themselves up to manual labor; the priests, to intellectual, with the care of souls, having charge of a great many parishes.

How long does Lent last?

Wednesday and Friday of every week are days of abstinence; a fast lasts until midday, and the abstinence is from meat and eggs. Lent lasts for seven weeks, beginning at Quinquagesima; the fast is observed every day except Saturdays, Sundays, and certain feast days; fish is allowed.

How many Maronite dioceses are there in Latin America?

There is also a very large Maronite presence in Latin America. Three Maronite dioceses are based in Buenos Aires with an estimated 700,000 faithful, in Sao Paolo, Brazil, with 468,000 members, and in Mexico City with about 150,000 faithful. But for these estimated 1,318,000 Maronites there are only 17 parishes served by 48 priests.

What is the Maronite liturgy?

The Maronite liturgy is of West Syrian origin, but it has been influenced by the East Syrian and Latin traditions. The Eucharist is essentially a variation of the Syriac liturgy of St. James. Originally celebrated in Syriac, the liturgy has been for the most part in Arabic since the Arab invasions.

Where is Maronite seminary?

There is a Maronite Patriarchal Seminary at Ghazir and a diocesan seminary at Karm Sadde , near Tripoli. Advanced theological education is provided at the University of the Holy Spirit at Kaslik. A Maronite College was founded in Rome in 1584. The college moved to a new building in 1893, but was closed during the Second World War. It did not reopen until February 2000.

Where are the Maronite Patriarchs?

The Maronite Patriarchs have resided at Bkerke, about 25 miles from Beirut, since 1790. Today there are ten dioceses in Lebanon with over 800 parishes, and seven other jurisdictions in the Middle East. No national census has been taken in Lebanon since 1932. But it is clear that over the past sixty years, there has been a steady decline in the number of Christians as compared to Muslims, mostly through emigration of large numbers of Maronites. Christians now make up about one third of the total population of four million. Official Vatican statistics indicate that there were 1, 413,652 Maronites in Lebanon at the end of 2006.

Where did the Maronites come from?

The Maronites of Lebanon traditionally trace their origin back to the late 4th century when a group of disciples gathered around the charismatic figure of the monk St. Maron. They later founded a monastery located midway between Aleppo and Antioch and evangelized the surrounding population. In the 5th century the monastery vigorously supported the christological doctrine of the Council of Chalcedon.

When did France give Lebanon independence?

When France granted Lebanon full independence in 1943, it attempted to guarantee the safety of the Maronite community by drawing boundaries that would ensure a permanent Maronite majority, and leaving behind a constitution guaranteeing, among other things, that the president would always be a Maronite. This arrangement was threatened by the 15-year long civil war that erupted in Lebanon in 1975. Soon Christians were no longer a majority in the country since many thousands of Maronites left the country to make new lives for themselves in the West, and the very existence of Lebanon seemed uncertain.

What Pope said about Lebanon?

On September 7, 1989, Pope John Paul II issued an Apostolic Letter on the Situation in Lebanon to all the bishops of the Catholic Church. In the text he warned that “without doubt, the disappearance of Lebanon would be one of the world’s greatest sorrows,” and said that saving Lebanon is “one of the most urgent and most noble tasks that the contemporary world must take upon itself.” The civil war ended in 1990, but much of the country was left in ruins. The Pope later called for a Special Assembly for Lebanon of the Synod of Bishops, which took place in Vatican City from November 26 to December 14, 1995. It recommended that the various Catholic churches in Lebanon work together more effectively, develop closer ecumenical relations with other churches not in full communion with Rome, and foster a spirit cooperation and mutual respect with Lebanese of other religions. Pope John Paul II visited Lebanon, in May 1997.

How many Maronite Catholics are there in Lebanon?

They fled in particularly large numbers during the Lebanese civil war of 1975-1990. 1 The 2015 Annuario Pontificio claims about 3.36 million Maronite Catholics worldwide, including about 1.5 million in Lebanon and 64,000 in Syria.

What were the ideals of the Maronite life?

Many of the ideals of the Maronite life were shaped by monastic traditions and the history of retreating to the mountains under threat. The namesake of the church, St. Maron (sometimes Maroun), was a hermit monk. Churches and holy sites in Lebanon are often located above towns, in hills and mountains.

Where did the Maronite Church originate?

Historically centered in Lebanon and Syria, the Maronite church was formed by Syriac Christians who developed their own hierarchy and traditions from the mid-fourth century onwards. During the Islamic conquest, Maronites retreated to the mountains in Lebanon. Though cut off from communication with Rome for 500 years before the Crusades, and for long periods afterwards, Maronites regard themselves not as a church that was eventually “unified” with Rome, having previously been Orthodox, but rather as one that was always united theologically and spiritually with Rome, and which “confirmed” that union when contact was reestablished. There is no Orthodox counterpart to the Maronite Church.

Can a Maronite priest be married?

Rafka (Rafqua) and St. Charbel are the most prominent among them, aside from the biblical saints—were all revered for their extreme monastic asceticism. Still, non-monastic Maronite priests can be married.

How many Anaphora do Maronites use?

We Maronites use about 12 Anaphora (Eucharistic prayers) and the stress in our Eucharistic prayers is always on God’s mercy and love. Some Eastern Churches were not always in communion with Rome. Some were formed by schism and later came back to full communion with Rome. This is NOT the case for the Maronite Church.

What is the job of a greeter at Our Lady’s?

The job of a Greeter is, of course, to greet people who come to the church for Divine Liturgy, but also to help them with any questions they may have. Due to the location of Our Lady’s in Austin, we get a lot of visitors who happen to be in town and are staying at a nearby hotel. We are often the closest Catholic Church.

Why do we not kneel during the Divine Liturgy?

Second, we do not kneel during the Divine Liturgy. Why? Because in the east, the way respect was shown to a person of importance was to stand, not kneel. And so we stand before Our Lord.

How many weeks of Advent are there in the Maronites?

Our liturgical cycle is somewhat different. For example, we Maronites have six (6) weeks of Advent, not four (4). We begin our liturgical year with the Consecration and Renewal of the Church, and then head into Advent, which we call the Season of Announcement, and in which each Sunday commemorates a particular happening in the season of Our Lord’s birth: The Announcement to Zechariah; the Announcement (Annunciation) to the Virgin Mary; the Visitation to Elizabeth; Birth of John the Baptizer; Revelation to Joseph; Genealogy Sunday; and then the Glorious Birth of Our Lord.

Where did the Maronite Church come from?

The Maronite Church comes from the Antiochene Christian tradition. It was in Antioch that the word “Christian” was first used. St. Peter founded the Church of Antioch and the founding of this church is recorded in the Acts of the Apostles.

Where did the word "Maronite" come from?

The word “Maronite”, again, comes from St. Maron, who lived as a Syriac Christian monk in the 5 th century. St. Maron was known for his missionary work, healing and miracles, and his teachings.

What is the difference between Maronite and Catholic?

The only difference between a Latin Rite Catholic and a Maronite Rite Catholic is their Rite. The main difference is the Maronite is an Eastern church that shares many attributes with the surrounding Orthodox churches.

Are the Maronites Catholic?

The Maronite Church is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church which is in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with the right of self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, one of more than a dozen individual churches which are in full communion with the Holy See.

Can Maronite Catholic priests marry?

Priests in Ea stern Rite Catholic churches may also marry prior to ordination. Roughly half of the Catholic priests of the Maronite church of Lebanon elect to marry . Eastern Rite Catholics like the Maronites and Melkites are following rules that would be familiar to any Greek Orthodox Christian.

What Bible does the Maronite church use?

The Peshitta is the standard Syriac Bible , used by the Maronite Church , amongst others.

How many types of Catholic churches are there?

In addition to the Latin, or Roman, tradition, there are seven non-Latin, non-Roman ecclesial traditions: Armenian, Byzantine, Coptic, Ethiopian, East Syriac (Chaldean), West Syriac, and Maronite. Each to the Churches with these non-Latin traditions is as Catholic as the Roman Catholic Church .

What religion is Lebanon?

The main two religions are Islam with 54.1% of the citizens (Sunni and Shia ) and Christianity with 45 . 7% of the citizens (the Maronite Church, the Orthodox Church, the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, Protestantism, the Armenian Apostolic Church).

Where did the Maronites come from?

In the 7th Century, due to religious persecution, they withdrew from the coastal regions to the mountainous areas of Lebanon and Syria , where they lived in isolation.

What is the Maronite Rite?

The Maronite Rite in its present form has been de-Latinized almost entirely, and represents a simplified version of the West Syriac rite used by the Syriac Orthodox, with somewhat less elaborate vestments, et cetera. The Syriac Catholic liturgy is very interesting; it differe a bit from the Syriac Orthodox liturgy, it has different music, and the Syriac Catholics wear western style copes and stoles in place of the Phayno and Hamnitho; they look a bit like Assyrians. I need to track down some English translations of their services. The Malankara Syrian Catholics use the West Syriac Rite more or less like the Indian Orthodox Church and the Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, using vestments by Pulickal Brothers with the standard grape vine pattern, however, I do have an image somewhere of them celebrating a liturgy in a very garish church, ad orientem, which Mor Ephrem asked me to try to find a while back, but I haven’t had a chance to do so as of yet.

What is the only parish in the world with a sanctuary veil?

My Maronite parish was famous for being the only one in the country with an sanctuary veil. As for how the liturgy was celebrated, often ad Orientem, with many chants in Syriac and Arabic, though most were in English, due to the limitations of the members of the choir.

Why is my Maronite parish so famous?

My Maronite parish was famous for being the only one in the country with an sanctuary veil. As for how the liturgy was celebrated, often ad Orientem, with many chants in Syriac and Arabic, though most were in English, due to the limitations of the members of the choir. As for the liturgy in the remaining parishes, I’ve seen a few good ones, most just bearable and some downright abusive.

What would happen if Antioch eliminated the Western Rite?

If Antioch eliminated the Western Rite, it would lose the people who have converted to Orthodox who are piously using the Western Rite liturgy. What is more, I would point out that St. Tikhon of Moscow thought a Western Rite was a good idea; he wrote the laundry list of required changes to the Anglican liturgy for it to be used in an Orthodox setting.

Where is Our Lady’s Maronite Church?

Are you referring to Our Lady’s Maronite Church in Austin, Texas?

Does Our Lady of Victory have a veil?

Our Lady of Victory Maronite Church (Suburbian Pittsburgh) has a veil as well.

Is NLM a good site?

Yes, I am familiar with NLM. It is a very good site, but it used to be better. Too much Professor Kwasniewski now for my taste.

How many Maronite priests were there in 2004?

The Maronite Patriarchal Assembly (2003-2004), made up of over 500 Maronite participants – clergy, religious and laity – from throughout the world, described the identity of the Maronite Church by five distinguishing marks:

How many centers of learning and culture are there in the Maronite Church?

The Maronite Church has been enriched by three centers of learning and culture:

What were the Maronites known for?

By 687, Maronites organized themselves around Saint John Maron, whom they elected Patriarch of the vacant See of Antioch, and thus developed as a distinct Church within the Catholic Church.

What are the major traditions of the Catholic Church?

There are six major traditions of the Catholic Church: Alexandrian. Antiochene. Armenian. Chaldean. Constantinopolitan (Byzantine) Latin (Roman) Each Catholic Church practices a common faith according to one of the six major traditions. The Maronite Church follows the Antiochene Tradition.

What was the Catholic Church?

As Christians went forth from Jerusalem they encountered different traditions, cultures, customs and languages, soon the Church became a communion of Churches united in love with each other, looking to the See of Peter in Rome as the first among them all . The Gospel of Christ has reached the four corners of the world.

Where did the Maronite Church come from?

The Maronite Church dates back to the early Christians of Antioch where “they were called Christians for the first time” (Acts 11:26). She still uses as Her liturgical language, Syriac, a dialect of the Aramaic that Jesus Himself spoke, and takes Her name from the hermit-priest, Saint Maron, who died in 410 AD.

Where are Maronite seminaries?

Seminaries: Ain Saade, Ghazir and Karm Sadde in Lebanon; Washington, DC in the United States: Maronite religious orders and communities have houses of formation in Rome and in Lebanon. The Maronite College in Rome houses student priests who seek advance degrees.