Among Asian Americans as a whole,22% are Protestant,19% are Catholic,and 1% belong to other Christian groups,such as Orthodox Christians and Mormons. Most Filipino Americans are Catholic (65%),while most Korean Americans are Protestant(61%).
Is Christianity popular in South Korea?
Most Protestant Christians fled to South Korea from North Korea and in the decades since Protestant Christianity had grown rapidly. It is now the second most popular religion in the country, although there have been problems with more zealous member condemning and attacking non-Christians and other Christian sects.
Is Korea the only Protestant country in Asia?
Korea is the only Asian nation with a significant Protestant presence. One in five South Koreans professes the faith. With more than eight and a half million believers, Protestantism as an organized religion ranks second numerically, not far behind Buddhism, but in terms of power and influence, it is unrivalled.
Was Buddhism popular in South Korea before Protestantism?
The Korean Census indicates that in 1962, only 2.8% and 2.2% of people in South Korea were Protestants and Catholics, respectively. Many people seem to assume that Buddhism had been popular in South Korea before Protestantism began to gain strength in the 1960s.
What are the major crackdowns on the religion in Korea?
Some of the major crackdowns on the religion include the Catholic Persecutions of 1801, 1839 and 1866. Similar to the Protestant Christian community in Korea, the Roman Catholics were also involved in supporting Korean independence during the Japanese occupation.
What were the first colleges in Korea?
In the early 1900s, the Presbyterian mission in Pyongyang developed a number of influential institutions, including Union Christian Hospital, Union Presbyterian Theological Seminary, and Union Christian College, the first four-year college in Korea. Forty universities and 293 schools were started by Christians, including three of the top five universities in the country. Kim Hyong Jik, father of the North Korean dictator Kim Il Sung, was a Presbyterian and a student at the Sungshil Academy as a teenager in the 1910s and attended school on the Union Christian College campus.
What is the USCIRF?
9. The USCIRF notes that tens of thousands of prisoners facing hard labor or execution are Christians from underground churches or who practice in secret. In December 2017, the War Crimes Committee of the International Bar Association issued a report about crimes against humanity in North Korea’s political prisons.
How many Christians are there in North Korea?
8. The United Nations estimates that less than 1 percent of the 25 million people in North Korea are Christian. The North Korean regime reviles Christianity and considers it the biggest threat among religions, the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) says, because it associates that faith with the West, particularly the United States. The regime actively tries to identify and search out Christians practicing their faith in secret and imprisons those it apprehends, often along with their family members, even if they are not similarly religious.
What did the Christian leaders of Korea do?
Korean Christian leaders led nationwide educational movements with the vision of making Korea a Christian nation.”. The success of Christianity in the city of Pyongyang led to it being called the “ Jerusalem of the East ” in the missionary community. 4.
What did Kim Jong Un and Moon Jae-in discuss?
Last week, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un and South Korean president Moon Jae-in met in a historic summit to discuss peace between the two nations. The meeting has inspired cautious hope the end of the civil war is near and that religious freedom will once again flourish on the peninsula.
When did the Korean Pentecost begin?
But that began to change after the “Pyongyang Revival” or “Korean Pentecost” in 1907, the first important religious movement for Korean Protestant Christianity. As Kirsteen Kim, professor of theology and world Christianity at Fuller Theological Seminary, says, “The revival had lasting effects on Korean Christianity and on Korea.
Where do Korean missionaries serve?
More than half of Korean missionaries serve in Northeast Asia, the United States, the Philippines, Japan, India, Thailand, Southeast Asia, Cambodia, and Russia. “Koreans are natural evangelists,” says Samuel Moffett, professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary. “They love to tell the good news.”. 8.
What are the problems with Korean Protestantism?
Another problem associated with contemporary Korean Protestantism is its heavily evangelical orientation, which focuses on missionary activities with seemingly little interest in social concerns. The aggressive and sometimes antagonistic evangelical activities of diehard Protestants against the other religious groups in Korea, such as destroying Buddha statues and stone pagodas, have alienated many Koreans from Protestantism. When Pope Francis visited Korea this past summer (2014), some Korean Protestants even demonstrated against his visit. South Korean churches have sent approximately 14,000 missionaries to foreign countries, the second-highest number next to the United States. The insensitivity to and disrespectful attitudes of many Korean overseas missionaries towards local cultures have sparked angry reactions in several countries, including Turkey and India. When large numbers of American and other Western (Canadian and Australian) missionaries came to Korea at the end of the nineteenth century with social-service and educational packages, they were received relatively well because few Koreans had an organized religion at that time. However, overseas Korean missionaries today are received far less enthusiastically in many foreign countries because a predominant majority of them have Catholicism, Hinduism, Islam, or Buddhism as their dominant religion. There was a news report that some Korean Protestant missionaries visited Buddhist temples in other Asian countries and read the Bible. This is neither morally nor legally acceptable.
What religions did Korea have in the 1960s?
Protestantism was transplanted to Korea by American and other Western missionaries in the 1880s, about one hundred years after Catholicism had spontaneously started in Korea. However, due to Japanese colonial rule and conflicts between Protestant religious doctrines and Confucian ancestor worship, the two Christian religions did not grow much in Korea until the early 1960s. The Korean Census indicates that in 1962, only 2.8% and 2.2% of people in South Korea were Protestants and Catholics, respectively. Many people seem to assume that Buddhism had been popular in South Korea before Protestantism began to gain strength in the 1960s. However, despite the long history of Buddhism in Korea and its strong effect on Korean culture, this was not true. The Korean Census shows that Buddhists composed only 2.6% of the population in South Korea in 1962. There were many Buddhist temples in Korea at that time, but since many of them were located deep in remote mountain locations, they did not have much effect on people in general. According to the Census, less than 10% of the population in South Korea had a religion in 1962. However, the proportions of Koreans affiliated with the two Christian religions and Buddhism rose radically between the early 1960s and the mid-1980s. In 1985, the proportions of Buddhists and Protestants had increased to 20% and 16%, respectively. Their proportions grew slowly after 1985, to 23% and 18%, respectively, in 2005. Catholics comprised 11% of the population in Korea in 2005.
How did Protestantism affect South Korea?
Protestantism, along with American missionaries, came to have a positive effect on South Korea’s modernization and industrialization. American Presbyterian and Methodist missionaries established dozens of modern schools in Korea at the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Most importantly, these modern schools enabled Korean women to get formal education for the first time, thus making an important contribution to achieving gender equality in Korea. Ewha Womans University, originally established by Mary Scranton, an American Methodist missionary, has grown into one of the major women’s universities in the world, and it has produced many women leaders in South Korea. Church Women United is a very influential ecumenical Christian women’s organization (modeled after another U.S. organization with the same name), and almost all leaders of major women’s organizations are associated with it. Additionally, medical schools that were established by American missionaries have become the foundation for Western medical schools in Korea. Moreover, YMCA, YWCA, and other Protestant educational and social-service organizations have played a central role in providing leadership, education, and services for young Koreans in large cities.
How did the religious population in Korea increase between 1962 and 1985?
How can we explain the radical increase in the religious population in Korea between 1962 and 1985? Researchers indicate that the mass migration of Koreans from rural areas to urban areas, especially to large cities, left many Koreans rootless during this period of radical urbanization and industrialization, and that urban migrants therefore turned to religious organizations for psychological comfort, fellowship, and social services. Another factor to the phenomenal expansion of the Protestant population in Korea was the heavy evangelical orientation of Korean churches, especially of Korean Presbyterian churches. Additionally, many Buddhist temples relocated to cities to accommodate urban migrants and even adopted some Christian-style social services.
What religion did South Korea practice in 1962?
The vast majority of Koreans at that time practiced religion in the form of shamanism and Confucian ancestor worship. As South Korea became a more rational and modern society with improvements in education and technology during the period, Koreans replaced their traditional folk beliefs with those of organized religions. However, even after making the shift to Protestantism, Catholicism, and Buddhism, these Korean followers of organized religion continued to incorporate important elements of shamanism into their religious practices, including praying for good luck and Confucian ancestor worship.
What did Protestant Christianity do to the Korean community?
Among the many things, the message served as empowerment to the Korean community and started levelling out people of varying classes and economic statuses and also provided more equal resources to everyone.
What was the main focus of Confucianism in Korea?
The process of perfecting human nature had a stronger focus on educational achievement as this became the most significant measure of socio-economic status and social respectability. Unfortunately, this was only accessible to the upper class since they were the only ones who could afford the resources despite knowledge being unanimously desired.
Why did Protestants distinguish themselves from Catholics?
So much so that many Protestants deliberately distinguished themselves from Catholics for doctrinal reasons and to avoid persecution.
Where was the first Protestant church in Korea?
There are two different accounts of the first Protestant church being established and each of them were attributed to the main means in which Protestant Christianity was embraced and adopted.#N#One of the first possible Protestant churches in Korea was established by Baek Hong-jun in Uiju, which is located just within the northern border. Baek Hong-jun had travelled there in 1879 for evangelical purposes to study Gospels that were smuggled in with the locals in the area. This continued to grow and reach out to an increasing number of people and by 1884 they had reached 18 members.
Did Korea have Catholicism?
Although Catholicism had been present in Korea as early as 1603 , Protestant Christianity had yet to make its appearance. However, as it spread through East Asia, it was only a matter of time for Protestant Christianity to reach Korea. In 1823, the first Bible translated in Chinese was published and the amount of Chinese Protestant literature began to rise. With such an influx in religious texts, a wide number of them were smuggled into Korea through their Northern border by the 1870s and made available for Koreans. These written texts were the right acceptable medium to communicate to the Confucian culture of Koreans at that time, leading to increased interest and demand.
How long has shamanism been around?
Traditional Korean Shamanism has been around in Korea since times immemorial, dating back in prehistoric times to at least 40,000 BC. Korean Shamanism took root within ancient, long forgotten cultures. The religion has played a key role since Korean civilization developed back during the early, mythical part of the founding of Korea’s first kingdom of Gojoseon by Dangun Wanggeom in 2333 BC. Before the introduction of Buddhism and Confucianism traditional Korean Shamanism was the dominant religion in Korea. Historically the religion has played a role in protecting people from attacks by evil spirits and helping to assist people to achieve health, peace and spiritual well being. It is also one of the world’s oldest and longest surviving religions, having had parts of it blended into Buddhism, Confucianism and Christianity. Since Korea was liberated from Japanese occupation and split into two countries in 1945 there have been occasion attempts by South Korean leaders to eradicate the religion but these have failed.
When was Confucianism first introduced to Korea?
Confucianism was first introduced into Korea from China during the Three Kingdoms period, around the same time that Buddhism was first introduced into the country. In 372 AD King Sosurim (?-384) of the Kingdom of Koguryô (37 BC-668 AD) created what may have been the first Confucian university in Korea. In the Kingdom of Silla (57 BC-935 AD) Confucianism was at first rejected and persecuted but it eventually became a force that led to the Silla Kingdom unifying Korea from 668 to 935. During the Kingdom of Goryeo Buddhism was the dominant religion but Neo-Confucianism managed to stick around, grow and give rise to new ideas. Under the Joseon Dynasty Korean Confucianism flourished, becoming the state religion and embedding its self into many aspects of Korean live. Starting in the 1700s Confucianism in Korea started to feel under attack from western influences and Christianity, which eventually culminated in the persecution of Christians during much of the 1800s. During the Japanese occupation of Japan, Confucianism was repressed in favor of promoting the Japanese religion of Shintoism and uplifting the position of Buddhism. Following the Japanese occupation the religion struggled to recover in the face of western influences and the erasing of Korean culture. Korean Confucianism has been making a recovery with young, new scholars and has been trying to reevaluate itself within a global context.
What is the name of the movement that led to the change of the name of Donghak?
In the years following this event the third patriarch of the Donghak movement, Son Byong-hi (1861-1922), decided to change the name of Donghak to Cheondogyo, often referred to as Cheondoism, with the goal of trying to modernize the religion and bring it into a new era.
Why was Confucianism repressed in Japan?
During the Japanese occupation of Japan, Confucianism was repressed in favor of promoting the Japanese religion of Shintoism and uplifting the position of Buddhism. Following the Japanese occupation the religion struggled to recover in the face of western influences and the erasing of Korean culture.
What is the religion of Taejonggyo?
Other new folk and shamanistic beliefs include Taejonggyo, a religion whose central creed is worshiping Dangun the mythical founder of Korea and Chungsanggyo, which is a religion that focuses on magical practices and the creation of a paradise on Earth.
What is the role of religion in the world?
Historically the religion has played a role in protecting people from attacks by evil spirits and helping to assist people to achieve health, peace and spiritual well being. It is also one of the world’s oldest and longest surviving religions, having had parts of it blended into Buddhism, Confucianism and Christianity.
Why did the Korean government kill Catholics?
Throughout most of the 1800s, Catholics were persecuted and killed by the Korean government as the Joseon Dynasty did not accept the religion and saw it as being in direct conflict with Korean Confucian society. Some of the major crackdowns on the religion include the Catholic Persecutions of 1801, 1839 and 1866.
How many Christians are there in the world?
A third of the world’s 7.5 billion people consist of Christians. It is geographically spread globally that no single continent can indisputably claim to be the center of Christianity. In early 20th century, a significant portion of Christians was based in Europe. Research conducted by Pew revealed that that is no longer the case and the continent is accountable for only 26%, the Americas (37%), sub-Saharan Africa (24%), and 13% is in Asia and the Pacific. Forty percent of all Christians are Protestants, accounting for a population of nearly 900 million.
How many people practice Christianity in Germany?
Germany (29 million) 63% of the population in Germany practice Christianity while a large portion (33.5) consider themselves religious. Roman Catholic Christianity accounts for 29.5% of the population while 27.9% (29 million) are Protestants.
How many people are Protestant in South Africa?
South Africa (37 million) 85% of the southernmost country in Africa, South Africa, practices Christianity. 37 million people representing 36% of the population are Protestant Christians. It is the most dominant religion in the country where 15% of its population do not affiliate themselves with any religion.
Which country has the most Christians?
The world’s most populous country, China, has approximately 58 million Protestant Christians. Christianity in China is among the fastest growing in the world, and at a 10% annual growth, it is estimated that by 2030, there will be more Christians in China than in the United States. 2. Nigeria (60 million)
Which country is the birthplace of Protestants?
History considers Germany as the birthplace of Protestants, a group of Christians who were against many of the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church. 7. DR Congo (32 million) 95% of the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) practices Christianity.
Is Christianity growing in Nigeria?
Christianity in Nigeria is ever rising since it was introduced by the British in the colonial era although there have been constant conflicts between Muslims and Christians. 1. United States (160 million) About 20% (160 million) of the global Protestants are found in the United States.
How many megachurches are there in Korea?
There are dozens of other megachurches in Korea – Somang Presbyterian, Nambu Full Gospel, Assembly of God Grace And Truth, Myungsung Presbyterian, Kum Ran Methodist, Young Nak Presbyterian, Soong Eui Methodist – all of them with more than 40,000 worshippers every Sunday, some well in excess of 100,000.
How did evangelization spread?
Evangelization spread with development. The new factories often had chaplains, as did the military, which required three years of service from every young male Korean. The dislocation caused by rapid industrialization sent many Koreans scrambling for something to believe in.
What religion did South Korea follow after the Korean War?
Following the Korean War, South Koreans came to view the Americans as saviors, and the Americans’ religion, Christianity, as a source of strength and wealth. Protestant leaders in South Korea “became very much familiar with the so-called American-style Protestant religion, sort of an American religion,” says Dr. Song Jae-Ryong, professor of Sociology at Kyunghee University, and President of the Korean Association for the Sociology of Religion. They adapted American evangelical themes and worked hard at turning South Korea into a Christian nation.
Why was evolution removed from high school textbooks?
In 2009, some evidence for evolution was removed from high school science textbooks because of pressure from religious groups, and a full third of Koreans – more than the number of Christians – do not believe in evolution.
What did Grayson say about annexation?
Only God alone, they were so desperate.”. Grayson says that annexation provided a link between nationalism and Christianity. “The Korean church has never had to answer questions about association with Western imperialism, because imperialism in Korea was Japanese.”.
Why is the Catholic Church growing?
By contrast, the Catholic Church has continued to grow, largely because it is perceived as being progressive, anti-regime, above corruption, and more democratic, ironic as that might sound to reform-minded Westerners. Kim Dae-jung, a well-known dissident during the dictatorships who would later go on to become president and win the Nobel Peace Prize, was Catholic. Though there was a “minjung” theology among some Protestants, that emphasized democracy and freedom during the dictatorship, it was only preached in a minority of churches.
How many Catholics were killed in Korea?
At least 8000 Catholics were killed, and many have since been canonized, giving Korea the fourth largest number of saints of any nation. In 1984, John Paul II canonized 103 all at once.