Conversion swept into the Christian fold a high proportion of Nadars during the 19th century. By converting to Christianity, theydefied the old order and questioned caste-based discrimination. Traditionally denied education, they now found access to education in mission schools and colleges.
Why did Nadars convert to Christianity in the 19th century?
Conversion swept into the Christian fold a high proportion of Nadars during the 19th century. By converting to Christianity, they defied the old order and questioned caste-based discrimination. Traditionally denied education, they now found access to education in mission schools and colleges.
What is the difference between Christian Nadars and Hindu Nadars?
The Christian Nadars are mainly concentrated in the southern belts while the Hindu ones are found dispersed throughout the state. But the majority are Hindus. A miniscule portion even embraced Islam in the 19th century in the coastal belts of Tirunelveli District.
How did the Nadar converts tackle the problem of local persecution?
Nadar converts tackled the problem of local persecution by migrating and establishing a series of autonomous settlements. The creation of these Christian villages as the exclusive domain of converts, enabled them to safeguard themselves against upper caste assaults.
Who are the Nadars?
About 10% of the Nadar population are Protestant Christians. The Nadars are a very hard working people. They have been well known for their perseverance, untiring energy, commitments and dedication to their business.
How did Nadar converts tackle the problem of local persecution?
Nadar converts tackled the problem of local persecution by migrating and establishing a series of autonomous settlements. The creation of these Christian villages as the exclusive domain of converts, enabled them to safeguard themselves against upper caste assaults. They could also evade the discriminatory taxes and forced free labour that used to be imposed on them
What institutions did the Nadar elite establish?
With foresight, the Nadar elite established a network of institutions such as colleges, hostels and even a bank, the Tamilnadu Mercantile bank.
What were the educational efforts of the missionaries?
The educational efforts of the missionaries were used by converts for their own social and economic benefit. The opening up of coffee and tea plantations in South India, Ceylon and Malaya in the 19th century provided employment as clerks and field workers for English-educated Nadar Christians. Some of them on their return developed interests in plantations. A few like P P Joseph, P D Devasahayam and A V Thomas became extraordinarily successful planters.
Why did the community take advantage of Western education?
The community also took advantage of Western education as they realized the benefits accruing from it. Ability to recognize new opportunities and adaptability to new contexts marked their advancement.
Where did Nadar Christians migrate to?
During the second half of the 19th century, a large number of Nadar Christians migrated to Ceylon, Burma and Malaya to find employment as soldiers, railway clerks and petty government officials. Among the succeeding generations of Nadar Christians, an appreciable number became distinguished and affluent landowners, entrepreneurs, lawyers, judges, physicians, engineers, architects, journalists, and top government officials and bureaucrats.
Who is David Davidar?
At 43, David Davidar has become the most famous name in Indian publishing. As CEO and Publisher of Penguin Books India, he notched up many firsts to his credit. He was the youngest publisher in the world when he took charge at the age of 26. He is reputed to have played a catalyst’s role in the writing careers of some of India’s most celebrated authors. He became one himself with the release in early 2002 of his novel The House of Blue Mangoes. This is a generational saga spread over more than a hundred years in the life of a Nadar family settled in Nagercoil in Kanyakumari district. Though Davidar’s grandfathers originally hailed from Kanyakumari district, they later moved to Chennai and established a settlement, David Nagar, near Tambaram. Before he came to Penguin, Davidar was executive editor of Gentleman magazine published from Bombay. A graduate from Madras University, he has a diploma in publishing from Radcliffe College, Harvard University. He has also taken senior management and finance programmes at top management schools such as the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad and INSEAD, Fountainbleau, France.
Who was the first group to rise from social lowliness to occupy places formerly reserved for Brahmins?
Nadars emerged, in the words of historian Hugald Grafe, as ‘‘one of the earliest groups who rose from social lowliness to occupy places formerly reserved for Brahmins.’’
Why were the Nadars weakened?
And, by the 15th century AD,Nadars were weakened by the Nayaks because of the in-fights and dis-unity among the Nadar brothers. In the year 1664 the Nadars were kept away from their own temples and their Royal ‘Western-Gate’. Leaders like Kali Kaatha Perumal Nadar, Navab Kumara Marthandan Nadar have fought to regain the power. They were cheated and killed . There were more than 108 types of taxes imposed on the Nadars barring them from assembling in a group to re-construct their army for re-building their kingdom. There are Stone Inscriptions to prove this. The tortures on the Nadars were so inhuman that in the 17th and 19th centuries the Christian Missionaries found a great ‘Fishing Field’ in the Nadar dominant areas. But for the Missionaries, this race would have been totally exterminated as planned by the Aryan Agents. But the mis-interpretation of ‘Nadar’ as a ‘Low-Caste’ was the result of the Missionary sympathy Propaganda. It is very unfortunate. Sanskrit dictionary tells Nadar as a ‘Royal Race’. Although the Missions have economically helped the Nadars to survive, they have not mentioned the high qualities and the valuable ‘Sastras’ possessed by the Nadars in places like Madurai and Kanniyakumari. These rare records of Varma sastra, Kalari, Vaidyam, Astronomy, Tharka sastra, ect., which are not found even in the Sanskrit language; especially the Varma sastra found among Kanniyakumari Nadars.
What were the tortures on the Nadars?
There are Stone Inscriptions to prove this. The tortures on the Nadars were so inhuman that in the 17th and 19th centuries the Christian Missionaries found a great ‘Fishing Field’ in the Nadar dominant areas. But for the Missionaries, this race would have been totally exterminated as planned by the Aryan Agents.
How many books are there about the Nadars?
There are still many more. There are more than 45 books about the history of the Nadars. The most known one presently, in English is that of Robert Hardgrave, an American. He pictures Nadars only as a “Toddy Tappers” to pull down Kamaraj’s political growth.
What was the history of the early Tamils?
Unfortunately, the history of the early Tamils, the aboriginal Nadars, with their 250 branches, has been tarnished, modified and fabricated to bring fame to the Aryan invaders. Mostly these changes have been made after the Muslim invasions, with the support of the Aryan Brahmins and some of the rival groups of the ruling tribes and the Aryan Agents. These ‘Agents’ are still at work. Many records were kept in our glorious Hindu Tamples. But most of them were destroyed by the ‘Agents’. All joined hands to destroy and denigrate the original ruling class of the land, the Nadars. Ofcourse, there was no Caste system in the early Sangam period . It was a later creation of the Brahmanical class to exploit the wealth of the country.
Where is the Varma Sastra found?
These rare records of Varma sastra, Kalari, Vaidyam, Astronomy, Tharka sastra, ect., which are not found even in the Sanskrit language; especially the Varma sastra found among Kanniyakumari Nadars.
Where did the Nadars come from?
But their origin is in the South, known to us as “Komari Land” which is the originator of the great Mediterranean Culture extending to African, …
What was the Tamil Nadars’ defamed record?
There were multi-Lingual Revolutions all over the Bharat Bhoomi by which Tamil was corrupted and Sanskrit took strong hold. Thus Tanjore, one of the strong holds of the Tamil Nadars, was defamed. Valamkaimaalai, one of the Palm-Leaf records with the Nadars, speaks about their history.
How did the Nadars prove their mettle?
The Nadars proved their mettle by adapting themselves to the changes which were moulding the society from traditional to modern.
What are the Nadars interested in?
Throughout history the Nadars have been actively interested in wealth, power and prestige. Contrary to the orthodox view of the Indian society, they have translated their goals which they have pursued actively and competitively, rather fatalistically accepting their lot or fulfilling a primary co operative role.
What are the Nadars known for?
The Nadars are a very hard working people. They have been well known for their perseverance, untiring energy, commitments and dedication to their business. They have become highly modernized. Many of them are qualified from Engineering, Medical Institutions and Business Schools. They are emerging in a changed manner leaving aside their traditional shackles and are forcefully looking into the future relating to manufacture and distribution of many modern products and services.
Where are the Nadars?
The Nadars are generally found throughout the Southern state of Tamilnadu. By the end of 2003 , it is estimated that they would number around 10 million. Their original area of concentration were the southern districts of Tamilnadu. But varied business and academic interests brought them to settle down in Coimbatore and Chennai and many more cities/towns as well.
Is the Indian caste system rigid?
The Indian Caste System is a very rigid order. Under such conditions it is very surprising to note that the Nadars as a Community have made themselves upwardly mobile- moving from a lower rung to a remarkably higher level, economically, politically, academically and socially. Hence they hog the limelight today like the yesteryears’ Kamarajar who achieved politically many milestones.
Why did Paganism not have much to offer?
Paganism didn’t have much to offer in way of this, simply because of the way it was structured. Worship of the gods was mechanical, personal, and somewhat private. A pagan would arrive at a temple, make his sacrifices or rituals and then just leave. There isn’t much room for networking and community there.
What is the difference between a heathen and a pagan?
Heathen is often used to describe the polytheist religions of the Germanic and Celtic peoples of Northern Europe (including Russia), while Pagan is more of a general term used to describe all polytheist religions around the world.
Why did the ancient pagans consider Christianity an atheist?
For this reason, many ancient Pagans regarded Christians as “atheists.” Not only did Christians deny the existence of the gods, but their arguments sounded much like those of the Greek philosophers, whom they also regarded as “atheists.”
How did Christianity change from a Jewish sect to a Catholic?
The Apostles would decide what is necessary for Gentile conversion and what is not. This would allow Gentile converts to continue to identify with their ethnic culture, while at the same time become members of the Christian Church. This is what turned Christianity from a Jewish sect into a Catholic (universal) religion. Christianity found its roots and context within Judaism, but grew beyond that into a global religion, consisting of all ethnicities and cultures. Likewise, this allowed many customs, terms, food and dance, once associated with Paganism, to be united with Christianity, just so long as such things did not interfere with Christian doctrine. This is how Christianity, still very Middle Eastern in the Middle East, is also very European in Europe, and very Latin American in Latin America. This is why Germanic Christianity looks a bit different from Mediterranean Christianity, which looks different from Middle Eastern Christianity, which looks different from Latin American Christianity, and so on. Pagans could convert to Christianity and still remain both ethnically and culturally the same people.
Why was conversion to Judaism so hard?
For the men in the ancient world, conversion to Judaism was especially harsh, because it required a painful act of physical mutilation, otherwise known as circumcision. For the ancient Pagan, there was really no incentive to become a Jew, but there were a whole lot of disincentives.
What does the word "paganus" mean?
It wasn’t until much later that Christians appropriated the word “paganus” to refer to the various ethnic religions of the people who were neither Christian nor Jewish. These were typically people who lived in small towns, villages or the countryside, so it’s easy to see how this word was appropriated for that purpose.
How was the Christian Church built?
The Christian church was built on the Jewish model of the synagogue. Every week Jews would gather for prayers and teaching. After this time, people would freely associate, building friendships and relationships. Christian communities were tight-knit, as were Jewish synagogues, which is why they alone survived the fall of the Roman Empire completely intact. Like the Jewish synagogue, the Christian church was built on the traditional family as the “building blocks” of the community. So preservation of the traditional family was seen as top priority for the whole community. The religion itself was heavily structured around that. In Christianity, marriage was raised to the level of a sacrament, called matrimony, which is seen on par with the priesthood and religious vocations.
Why did King Ethelred offer Olaf money?
Olaf accepted Ethelred’s offer. To seal the deal and to impart spiritual force to it , Ethelred baptized Olaf, making the Norwegian his foster-son – his spiritual kin.
What religion did the Vikings practice?
When the Vikings settled in already-Christian lands such as England, Scotland, and Ireland, they tended to readily adopt the religious modes of the local inhabitants.  As with their counterparts back in Scandinavia, this led to a hybrid religiosity with elements of both paganism and Christianity.
What did Olaf use as a weapon?
According to the traditional biographies of Olaf, he used Christianity not only as a gift, but also as a weapon. He’s portrayed as an ardent Christianizer who made a habit of destroying pagan holy sites and converting his new subjects with a blade pressed against their throats.  
What is the conversion of the Vikings to Christianity?
The traditional tales of the Vikings’ conversion to Christianity are sleek dramas full of zealous missionary saints, kings, and clerics who Christianize entire populations in a few heroic actions that are hardly short of miracles. As is the case with most medieval hagiography (a genre focused on recounting …
How did missionaries persuade people of the power of the Christian god?
According to the traditional legends about the conversion process, missionaries often persuaded the people of the extreme power of the Christian god by performing fantastical miracles in his name, feats which always led to a great number of conversions.  .
Why was Ansgar sent north?
Ansgar was sent north to begin converting the Danes. His only clear success was the conversion of Harald Klak, one of the competitors for the kingship of Denmark, in 810. But the conversion of “King” Harald meant little, because Harald was forced to flee Denmark when the power dynamics in the country shifted against him.
When did the Norse convert to Christianity?
In this article, we’ll explore the real process by which the Norse switched their religious allegiance from their ancestral paganism to Christianity. First, let’s look at the general characteristics that defined the Christianization process, and then move on to consider the specifics of how this transformation occurred in the main Norse countries and colonies of the Viking Age (roughly the years 793 to 1066).
What did Sensbach say about the Black Church?
Sensbach concludes, “much that we associate with the black church in subsequent centuries—the anchor of community life, advocate for social justice, midwife to spirituals and gospel music—in some measure derives … from those early origins.” This Reformation spirit found its home in two women and two men.
Why did Ignatius write to Rome?
One reason for his letter to Rome was to be sure they did nothing to secure his release.
How was it that the church underwent such sacrifices?
How was it that the church underwent such sacrifices? The Roman religion was not intolerant; Rome had accepted into its pantheon deities from the Italian tribes and from Asia Minor. In the provinces, the great territorial gods—such as Saturn in North Africa and Jehovah among the Jews—were accepted as “legal religion” on the grounds that their rites, even if barbarous, were sanctified by ancient tradition. Countless local gods and goddesses, worshiped by the ordinary inhabitants of the Greco-Roman world, were often provided with a classical equivalent name and worshiped as “Roman” deities.
What was the greatest religious movement in American history?
The Black Reformation of 1736. If the Protestant Reformation of 1517 is deemed the greatest religious movement in European history, then one could conclude that the Black Reformation of 1736 is the greatest religious movement in American history.
How long did Christianity endure hostility?
Beginning as a despised, illicit religious sect, Christianity endured 300 years of hostility to emerge as the dominant force in the Roman Empire.
What was Jesus’ role in the slaves?
This experience was not a neutral one. He clearly was used by the slavers and planters to pacify the slaves and to justify their enslavement. He clearly anointed and appointed the oppressors, not for the ministry of reconciliation but for their “ministry of subjugation.” He was the “White Man’s Jesus.”
Why did Constantine have a concordat with Licinius?
A concordat agreed to with his fellow emperor, Licinius, at Milan in 313 granted “both to Christians and to all others full authority to follow whatever worship each person has desired.… Every one of those who have a common wish to follow the religion of the Christians may from this moment freely and unconditionally proceed to observe the same without any annoyance or disquiet.” In retrospect, the agreement forms one of the major watersheds in the history of Christianity, bidding farewell to the age of the martyrs and presaging the era of the Christian Empire.